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01-12-2018 | Research | Uitgave 1/2018 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2018

Reliability of a multi-segment foot model in a neutral cushioning shoe during treadmill walking

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2018
Megan E. R. Balsdon, Colin E. Dombroski



Detailed kinematics of the foot has been frequently reported on in the literature, specifically using various multi-segment foot models. It is important to identify the reliability of a multi-segment foot model in a population of mixed genders and activity levels, while walking in commonly used footwear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the between-day reliability and within-session variability of the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) while walking in a neutral cushioning shoe.


A 7-camera Vicon motion capture system was used along with 29 passive reflective markers, placed on the participant to examine the multi-segment foot kinematics of the left foot using the OFM. Windows were cut in New Balance 840 shoes following reports from a previous investigation to maintain shoe integrity during testing. Two walking sessions on separate days were collected for 12 healthy participants, with an average total of 22 gait cycles per day.


ICCs ranged from 0.020 to 0.964 for between-day reliability, and within-session ICC values ranged from 0.268 to 0.985. Between-day ICC values of the relative measures (excursion and range of motion (ROM)) were higher than the absolute angle measures (angle at foot strike and peak angle). Largest differences were measured in the transverse plane, and the smallest differences in the sagittal plane. Bland-Altman plots revealed best agreement in the frontal and sagittal planes. SEM values ranged from 0.04 to 3.5 for the between-day reliability.


Between-day reliability and within-session variability were comparable to previous studies for adults walking barefoot and shod. This research demonstrates that the OFM can produce reliable data when applied to the assessment of a shod foot.

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