Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Barnes, H., & Wright, G. (2012). Defining child poverty in South Africa using the socially percieved necessities approach. In A. Minujin (Ed.), Global child poverty and well-being: measurement, concepts, policy and action. Bristol: The Policy Press.
Bhargava, A. (2005). AIDS epidemic and the psychological well-being and school participation of Ethiopian orphans. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 10, 263–275. CrossRef
Boyes, M. E., & Cluver, L. (2013a). Performance of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale in a sample of children and adolescents from poor urban communities in Cape Town. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29, 113–120. CrossRef
Boyes, M. E., & Cluver, L. (2013b). Relationships among HIV/AIDS-orphanhood, stigma, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in South African youth: A longitudinal investigation using a path analysis framework. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 323–330. CrossRef
Boyes, M. E., Cluver, L. D., Bowes, L., Ward, C. L., & Badcock, N. A. (2014). Bullying victimisation, internalising symptoms, and conduct problems in South African children and adolescents: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,. doi: 10.1007/s10802-10014-19888-10803. PubMed
Bronfrenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Burton, P. (2008). National primary school violence survey 2007. Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention.
Chi, P., Li, X., Zhao, J., & Zhao, G. (2014). Vicious circle of perceived stigma, enacted stigma and depressive symptoms among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China. AIDS and Behavior, 18(6), 1054–1062.
Flisher, A. J., Ward, C. L., Liang, H., Onya, H., Mlisa, N., Terblanche, S., et al. (2006). Injury-related behaviour among South African high-school students at six sites. South African Medical Journal, 96, 825–830. PubMed
Forehand, R., Jones, D., Kotchick, B., Armistead, L., Morse, E., Simon Morse, P., et al. (2002). Noninfected children of HIV-infected mothers: A 4-year longitudinal study of child psychosocial adjustment and parenting. Behavior Therapy, 33, 579–600. CrossRef
Gini, G. (2006). Bullying as a social process: The role of group membership in students’ perception of inter-group aggression at school. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 51–65. CrossRef
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York: Guilford Press.
Kahn, K., Tollman, S., Garenne, M., & Gear, J. (2000). Validation and application of verbal autopsies in a rural area of South Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 5, 824–831. CrossRef
Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s depression inventory. Niagra Falls, NY: Multi-health Systems.
Lopman, B. A., Barnabas, R. V., Boerma, J. T., Chawira, G., Gaitskell, K., Harrop, T., et al. (2006). Creating and validating an algorithm to measure AIDS mortality in the adult population using verbal autopsy. PLOS Medicine, 3, e312. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030312. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
Mulis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Kennedy, A. M., & Foy, P. (2007). PIRLS 2006: IEAs progress in international reading literacy study in primary schools in 40 countries. MA: Chestnut Hill.
Muthen, B., du Toit, S. H. C., & Spisic, D. (1997). Robust inference using weighted least squares and quadratic estimating equations in latent variable modeling with categorical and continuous outcomes. Unpublished technical report. Retrieved from April 7, 2014. http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/muthen/articles/Article_075.pdf.
Mynard, H., & Joseph, S. (2000). Development of the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 169–178. CrossRef
Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M. O., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 16, 2094–2100. CrossRef
Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Magdol, L., Silva, P. A., & Stanton, W. R. (1996). Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: Prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 552–562. CrossRefPubMed
Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell.
Owens, L., Shute, R., & Slee, P. (2000). ‘I’m in and you’re out…’: Explanations for teenage girls’ indirect aggression. Psychology Evolution, and Gender, 2, 19–46. CrossRef
Pillay, U., Roberts, B., & Rule, S. (2006). South African social attitudes: Changing times, diverse voices. Cape Town: HSRC Press.
Reddy, S. P., Panday, S., Swart, D., Jinabhai, C. C., Amosun, S. L., James, S., et al. (2003). Umthenthe Uhlaba Usamila—The South African youth risk behaviour survey 2002. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council.
Richter, L., & Dawes, A. (2008). Child abuse in South Africa: Rights and wrongs. Child Abuse Review, 17, 79–93. CrossRef
Rigby, K. (2002). New perspectives on bullying. London: Jessica Kingsley.
Ruchkin, V., Schwab-Stone, M., & Vermeiren, R. (2004). Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) psychometric development summary. New Haven: Yale University.
Salmivalli, C., & Peets, K. (2009). Bullies, victims, and bully-victim relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. In K. Rubin, M. Bukowski, & B. Laurens (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 322–340). New York: Guildford Press.
Smith, P. K., Salmivalli, C., & Cowie, H. (2012). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: A commentary. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8, 433–441. CrossRef
Ssewamala, F. M., Han, C.-K., & Neilands, T. B. (2009). Asset ownership and health and mental health functioning among AIDS-orphaned adolescents: Findings from a randomized clinical trial in rural Uganda. Social Science and Medicine, 2009(69), 191–198. CrossRef
Statistics South Africa. (2014). Poverty Trends in South Africa: An examination of absolute poverty between 2006 and 2011. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.
Stauffacher, K., & DeHart, G. (2006). Crossing social contexts: Relational aggression between siblings and friends during early and middle childhood. Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 228–240. CrossRef
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Ausin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Townsend, L., Flisher, A. J., Chikobvu, P., Lombard, C., & King, G. (2008). The relationship between bullying behaviours and high school dropout in Cape Town, South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 38, 21–32. CrossRef
Ttofi, M. M., & Farrington, D. P. (2011). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: A systematic and meta-analytic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7, 27–56. CrossRef
UNAIDS. (2008). Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: United Nations.
UNICEF. (2013). Towards an AIDS-free generation—Children and AIDS: Sixth stocktaking report, 2013. New York: UNICEF.
Vreeman, R. C., & Carroll, A. E. (2007). A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 161, 78–88. CrossRef
- Relationships Between Familial HIV/AIDS and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: The Mediating Effect of Bullying Victimization in a Prospective Sample of South African Children and Adolescents
Mark E. Boyes
Lucie D. Cluver
- Springer US