Recent years have seen an increase in the use of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) evaluation as an easy-to-use, reproducible, proxy-measure of brain structural abnormalities. Here, we evaluated RNFL thickness in a group of subjects with high functioning autism (HFA) or with Asperger Syndrome (AS) to its potential as a tool to study autism pathophysiology. All subjects underwent high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography to evaluate RNFL thickness. HFA subjects presented with reduced global RNFL thickness compared both to AS subjects and controls. AS subjects showed a reduced nasal quadrant RNFL thickness compared to controls. Verbal-IQ/performance-IQ discrepancy correlated with RNFL thickness. Our data suggest that RNFL evaluation could help in the development of biological markers of autism pathophysiology.