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01-12-2021 | Research | Uitgave 1/2021 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2021

Rates and risk factors for amputation in people with diabetes in Japan: a historical cohort study using a nationwide claims database

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2021
Masanori Kaneko, Kazuya Fujihara, Mayuko Yamada Harada, Taeko Osawa, Masahiko Yamamoto, Masaru Kitazawa, Yasuhiro Matsubayashi, Takaho Yamada, Hiroyasu Seida, Satoru Kodama, Hirohito Sone
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The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13047-021-00474-8.

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The prevalence of diabetes is rising, and diabetes develops at a younger age in East Asia. Although lower limb amputation negatively affects quality of life and increases the risk of cardiovascular events, little is known about the rates and predictors of amputation among persons with diabetes from young adults to those in the “young-old” category (50–72 y).


We analyzed data from a nationwide claims database in Japan accumulated from 2008 to 2016 involving 17,288 people with diabetes aged 18–72 y (mean age 50.2 y, HbA1c 7.2%). Amputation occurrence was determined according to information from the claims database. Cox regression model identified variables related to lower limb amputation.


The mean follow-up time was 5.3 years, during which time 16 amputations occurred (0.17/1000 person-years). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09 [95% confidence intervals] 1.02–1.16, p = 0.01) and HbA1c (HR 1.46 [1.17–1.81], p < 0.01) were independently associated with amputations. Compared with those aged < 60 years with HbA1c < 8.0%, the HR for amputation was 27.81 (6.54–118.23) in those aged ≥60 years and HbA1c ≥8.0%.


Age and HbA1c were associated with amputations among diabetic individuals, and the rates of amputation were significantly greater in those ≥60 years old and with HbA1c ≥8.0%.

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