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Ecological barriers like racism and discrimination can weigh heavily on the shifting emotions of adolescents. We investigated the relationship of racial socialization experiences to the depression symptoms of 160 Black adolescents, including lethargy, low self-esteem, cognitive difficulties, social introversion, irritability, guilt, pessimism, sad mood, instrumental helplessness, and overall depression. Cultural pride socialization was inversely related to adolescent reports of lethargy and low self-esteem while alertness to discrimination socialization was positively related to instrumental helplessness and gender differences were found. Multiple regression findings showed that racial socialization experiences add significantly more predictability of depression symptoms over and above gender, neighborhood risk and resources. Recommendations for the family, mental health professionals and for the development of culturally relevant social interventions are provided.
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- Racial Socialization Experiences and Symptoms of Depression among Black Youth
Ph.D. Gwendolyn Y. Davis
Ph.D. Howard C. Stevenson
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers