Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children’s cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions of racial/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e., exposure to diverse cultures) and cultural socialization (i.e., in-group pride), were examined in a sample of 92 African American mother–child dyads, of which 50% were female. Maternal reports of involvement during their child’s 5th grade year were examined as a moderator in the relationship between racial/ethnic socialization and cognitive ability and achievement. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mothers’ reports of cultural exposure messages measured in 4th grade predicted children’s scores on 5th grade assessments of passage comprehension. There was also a significant interaction indicating that greater cultural exposure and more parental involvement in education predicted better reading passage comprehension scores over time. The implications for assessing dimensions relevant to cognitive ability and achievement in African American children are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Arnold, D. H., Zeljo, A., Doctoroff, G. L., & Ortiz, C. (2008). Parent involvement in preschool: Predictors and the relation of involvement to preliteracy development. School Psychology Review, 37(1), 74–90.
Bannon, W. M., McKay, M. M., Chacko, A., Rodriguez, J. A., & Cavaleri, M. (2009). Cultural pride reinforcement as a dimension of racial socialization protective of urban African American child anxiety. Families in Society, 90(1), 79–86. PubMed
Barnard, W. M. (2004). Parent involvement in elementary school and educational attainment. Children and Youth Services Review. Special Issue: Promoting Well being in children and youth: Findings from the Chicago longitudinal study, 26(1), 39–62.
Brown, T. L., Linver, M. R., Evans, M., & DeGennaro, D. (2009). African American parents’ racial and ethnic socialization and adolescent academic grades: Teasing out the role of gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescent, 38, 214–227. CrossRef
DeHart, G. B., Sroufe, L. A., & Cooper, R. G. (2004). Child development: Its nature and course (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Mills, R. J. (2004). US Census Bureau Current Population Reports, P60-226. Income, poverty and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2003. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1996). Family involvement in children’s and adolescents’ schooling. In A. Booth & J. F. Dunn (Eds.), Family-school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Englund, M. M., Luckner, A. E., Whaley, G. J. L., & Egeland, B. (2004). Children’s achievement in early elementary school: Longitudinal effects of parent involvement, expectations and quality of assistance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 723–730. CrossRef
Frazier, P. A., Tix, A. P., & Barron, K. E. (2004). Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(1), 115–134. CrossRef
Hughes, D., & Chen, L. (1997). When and what parents tell their children about race: An examination of race-related socialization among African American families. Applied Developmental Science, 1(4), 200–214. CrossRef
Hughes, D., & Johnson, D. J. (2001). Correlates in children’s experiences of parents’ racial socialization behaviors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 981–995. CrossRef
Hughes, D., Rivas-Drake, D., Witherspoon, D., & West-Bey, N. (2009). Received ethnic-racial socialization messages and youths’ academic and behavioral outcomes: Examining the mediating role of ethnic identity and self-esteem. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15(2), 112–124. PubMedCrossRef
Hughes, D., Rodriguez, J., Smith, E. P., Johnson, D. J., Stevenson, H. C., & Spicer, P. (2006). Parents’ ethnic-racial socialization practices: A review of research and directions for future study. Developmental Psychology, 43(5), 747–770. CrossRef
Jeynes, W. H. (2005). The effects of parent involvement on the academic achievement of African American youth. Journal of Negro Education, 74(3), 260–274.
Johnson, D. J., & Chung, J. K. (1995). Generations: American family heritage, family socialization, and cultural adaptation. Unpublished measure, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Johnson, D. J., & Spicer, P. (Eds.). (2009). Racial/ethnic socialization, identity, and youth outcomes: Excavating culture. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, (2), Special section.
Lesane-Brown, C. (2006). A review within race socialization within Black families. Developmental Review, 26, 400–426. CrossRef
Mandara, J., Varner, F., Greene, N., & Richman, S. (2009). Intergenerational family predictors of the Black-White achievement gap. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 867–878. CrossRef
McWayne, C., Hampton, V., Fantuzzo, J., Cohen, H. L., & Sekino, Y. (2004). A multivariate examination of parent involvement and the social and academic competencies of urban kindergarten children. Psychology in Schools, 41(3), 363–377. CrossRef
Murray, C., & Mandara, J. (2002). Racial identity in African American children: Cognitive and experimental antecedents. In H. P. McAdoo (Ed.), Black children: Social educational and parental environments (pp. 73–96). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Neblett, E. W., Philip, C. L., Cogburn, C. D., & Sellers, R. M. (2006). African American adolescents’ discrimination experiences and academic achievement: Racial socialization as a cultural compensatory and protective factor. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(2), 199–218. CrossRef
Neblett, E. W., White, R. L., Ford, K. R., Philip, C. L., Nguyen, H. X., & Sellers, R. M. (2008). Patterns of racial socialization and psychological adjustment: Can parental communications about race reduce the impact of racial discrimination? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18(3), 477–515. CrossRef
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2001). Nonmaternal care and family factors in early development: An overview of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 457–492. CrossRef
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2003). Simple intercepts, simple slopes, and regions of significance in MLR 2- way interactions. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from http://people.ku.edu/~preacher/interact/mlr2.htm.
Rowley, S. J., Helaire, L. J., & Banerjee, M. (2010). Reflecting on racism: School involvement and perceived teacher discrimination in African American mothers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 83–92. CrossRef
Sanders, M. G. (1997). Overcoming obstacles: Academic achievement as a response to racism and discrimination. Journal of Negro Education, 66(1), 83–93. CrossRef
Stevenson, H. C. (1995). Relationship of adolescent perceptions of racial socialization to racial identity. Journal of Black Psychology, 21, 49–70. CrossRef
Stevenson, H. C., Cameron, R., Herrero-Taylor, T., & Davis, G. (2002). Development of teenager experience of racial socialization scale: Correlates of race-related socialization frequency from the perspective of Black youth. Journal of Black Psychology, 28, 84–106. CrossRef
Taylor, L. C., Clayton, J. D., & Rowley, S. J. (2004). Academic socialization: Understanding parental influences on children’s school related development in the early years. Review of General Psychology, 8(3), 163–178. CrossRef
U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Facts and terms every parent should know about NCLB. Retrieved November 12, 2005, from http://www.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/parents/parentfacts.html.
Woodcock, R. W., & Johnson, M. B. (1989). Woodcock-Johnson psycho-educational battery revised. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.
Wu, F., & Qi, S. (2006). Longitudinal effects of parenting on children’s academic achievement in African American families. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(3), 415–429.
- Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children
Zaje A. T. Harrell
Deborah J. Johnson
- Springer US