Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

23-09-2016 | Empirical Research

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceptions of School Climate and Its Association with Student Engagement and Peer Aggression

Auteurs: Timothy Konold, Dewey Cornell, Kathan Shukla, Francis Huang

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 6/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Research indicates that a positive school climate is associated with higher levels of student engagement and lower rates of peer aggression. However, less attention has been given to whether such findings are consistent across racial/ethnic groups. The current study examined whether Black, Hispanic, and White high school students differed in their perceptions of school climate, student engagement, and peer aggression as measured by the Authoritative School Climate survey. In addition, the study tested whether the associations between school climate and both student engagement and peer aggression varied as a function of racial/ethnic group. The sample consisted of 48,027 students in grades 9–12 (51.4 % female; 17.9 % Black, 10.5 % Hispanic, 56.7 % White, and 14.9 % other) attending 323 high schools. Regression models that contrasted racial/ethnic groups controlled for the nesting of students within schools and used student covariates of parent education, student gender, and percentage of schoolmates sharing the same race/ethnicity, as well as school covariates of school size and school percentage of students eligible for free- or reduced-price meals. Perceptions of school climate differed between Black and White groups, but not between Hispanic and White groups. However, race/ethnicity did not moderate the associations between school climate and either engagement or peer aggression. Although correlational and cross-sectional in nature, these results are consistent with the conclusion that a positive school climate holds similar benefits of promoting student engagement and reducing victimization experiences across Black, Hispanic, and White groups.
Literatuur
go back to reference American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
go back to reference Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 369–386.CrossRef Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 369–386.CrossRef
go back to reference Baly, M., Cornell, D., & Lovegrove, P. (2014). A longitudinal comparison of peer- and self-reports of bullying victimization across middle school. Psychology in the Schools, 51, 217–240. doi:10.1002/pits.21747.CrossRef Baly, M., Cornell, D., & Lovegrove, P. (2014). A longitudinal comparison of peer- and self-reports of bullying victimization across middle school. Psychology in the Schools, 51, 217–240. doi:10.​1002/​pits.​21747.CrossRef
go back to reference Bandyopadhyay, S., Cornell, D. G., & Konold, T. R. (2009). Internal and external validity of three school climate scales from the School Climate Bullying Survey. School Psychology Review, 38, 338–355. Bandyopadhyay, S., Cornell, D. G., & Konold, T. R. (2009). Internal and external validity of three school climate scales from the School Climate Bullying Survey. School Psychology Review, 38, 338–355.
go back to reference Baumrind, D. (1968). Authoritarian vs. authoritative parental control. Adolescence, 3, 255–272. Baumrind, D. (1968). Authoritarian vs. authoritative parental control. Adolescence, 3, 255–272.
go back to reference Berg, J., & Cornell, D. (2016). Middle school aggression toward teachers, authoritative school climate, and teacher distress. School Psychology Quarterly, 31, 122–139.CrossRefPubMed Berg, J., & Cornell, D. (2016). Middle school aggression toward teachers, authoritative school climate, and teacher distress. School Psychology Quarterly, 31, 122–139.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bottiani, J. H., Bradshaw, C. P., & Mendelson, T. (2016). Inequality in Black and White high school students’ perceptions of school support: An examination of race in context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 1176–1191.CrossRefPubMed Bottiani, J. H., Bradshaw, C. P., & Mendelson, T. (2016). Inequality in Black and White high school students’ perceptions of school support: An examination of race in context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 1176–1191.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Johnson, S. L. (2015a). Overlapping verbal, relational, physical, and electronic forms of bullying in adolescence: Influence of school context. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, 494–508.CrossRef Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Johnson, S. L. (2015a). Overlapping verbal, relational, physical, and electronic forms of bullying in adolescence: Influence of school context. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, 494–508.CrossRef
go back to reference Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2015b). Examining variation in the impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports: Findings from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 546–557. doi:10.1037/a0037630.CrossRef Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2015b). Examining variation in the impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports: Findings from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 546–557. doi:10.​1037/​a0037630.CrossRef
go back to reference Branson, C., & Cornell, D. (2009). A comparison of self and peer reports in the assessment of middle school bullying. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 25, 5–27.CrossRef Branson, C., & Cornell, D. (2009). A comparison of self and peer reports in the assessment of middle school bullying. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 25, 5–27.CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, & teacher education. Teachers College Record, 111, 180–213. Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, & teacher education. Teachers College Record, 111, 180–213.
go back to reference Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25, 65–83. doi:10.1037/a0020149.CrossRef Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25, 65–83. doi:10.​1037/​a0020149.CrossRef
go back to reference Cornell, D., & Brockenbrough, K. (2004). Identification of bullies and victims: A comparison of methods. Journal of School Violence, 3, 63–87.CrossRef Cornell, D., & Brockenbrough, K. (2004). Identification of bullies and victims: A comparison of methods. Journal of School Violence, 3, 63–87.CrossRef
go back to reference Cornell, D., & Huang, F. (2016). Authoritative school climate and high school student risk behavior: a cross-sectional multi-level analysis of student self-reports. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. doi:10.1007/s10964-016-0424-3. Cornell, D., & Huang, F. (2016). Authoritative school climate and high school student risk behavior: a cross-sectional multi-level analysis of student self-reports. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. doi:10.​1007/​s10964-016-0424-3.
go back to reference Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F., & Fan, X. (2013). Perceived prevalence of bullying and teasing predicts high school dropout rates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 138–149.CrossRef Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F., & Fan, X. (2013). Perceived prevalence of bullying and teasing predicts high school dropout rates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 138–149.CrossRef
go back to reference Cornell, D., Shukla, K., & Konold, T. (2015). Peer victimization and authoritative school climate: A multilevel approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 1186.CrossRef Cornell, D., Shukla, K., & Konold, T. (2015). Peer victimization and authoritative school climate: A multilevel approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 1186.CrossRef
go back to reference Cornell, D., Shukla, K., & Konold, T. R. (2016). Authoritative school climate and student academic engagement, grades, and aspirations in middle and high schools. AERA Open, 2, 2332858416633184.CrossRef Cornell, D., Shukla, K., & Konold, T. R. (2016). Authoritative school climate and student academic engagement, grades, and aspirations in middle and high schools. AERA Open, 2, 2332858416633184.CrossRef
go back to reference De Pedro, K. T., Gilreath, T., & Berkowitz, R. (2016). A latent class analysis of school climate among middle and high school students in California public schools. Children and Youth Services Review, 63, 10–15.CrossRef De Pedro, K. T., Gilreath, T., & Berkowitz, R. (2016). A latent class analysis of school climate among middle and high school students in California public schools. Children and Youth Services Review, 63, 10–15.CrossRef
go back to reference Dynarski, M., Clarke, L., Cobb, B., Finn, J., Rumberger, R., & Smink, J. (2008). Dropout Prevention: A Practice Guide (NCEE 2008–4025). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc. Dynarski, M., Clarke, L., Cobb, B., Finn, J., Rumberger, R., & Smink, J. (2008). Dropout Prevention: A Practice Guide (NCEE 2008–4025). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. http://​ies.​ed.​gov/​ncee/​wwc.
go back to reference Flannery, K. B., Fenning, P., Kato, M. M., & McIntosh, K. (2014). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 111–124. doi:10.1037/spq0000039.CrossRefPubMed Flannery, K. B., Fenning, P., Kato, M. M., & McIntosh, K. (2014). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 111–124. doi:10.​1037/​spq0000039.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Furr, R. M., & Bacharach, V. R. (2008). Psychometrics. Los Angeles: SAGE. Furr, R. M., & Bacharach, V. R. (2008). Psychometrics. Los Angeles: SAGE.
go back to reference Gill, M. G., Ashton, P., & Algina, J. (2004). Authoritative schools: A test of a model to resolve the school effectiveness debate. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 389–409.CrossRef Gill, M. G., Ashton, P., & Algina, J. (2004). Authoritative schools: A test of a model to resolve the school effectiveness debate. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 389–409.CrossRef
go back to reference Gottfredson, G. D. (1999). User’s manual for the effective school battery. Ellicott City, MD: Gottfredson Associates. Gottfredson, G. D. (1999). User’s manual for the effective school battery. Ellicott City, MD: Gottfredson Associates.
go back to reference Gottfredson, G. D., Gottfredson, D. C., Payne, A. A., & Gottfredson, N. C. (2005). School climate predictors of school disorder: Results from a national study of delinquency prevention in schools. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42, 412–444.CrossRef Gottfredson, G. D., Gottfredson, D. C., Payne, A. A., & Gottfredson, N. C. (2005). School climate predictors of school disorder: Results from a national study of delinquency prevention in schools. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42, 412–444.CrossRef
go back to reference Gregory, A., Allen, J. P., Mikami, A. Y., Hafen, C. A., & Pianta, R. (2014). Eliminating the racial disparity in classroom exclusionary discipline. Journal of Applied Research on Children, 5(2), 1–22. Gregory, A., Allen, J. P., Mikami, A. Y., Hafen, C. A., & Pianta, R. (2014). Eliminating the racial disparity in classroom exclusionary discipline. Journal of Applied Research on Children, 5(2), 1–22.
go back to reference Gregory, A., Cornell, D., & Fan, X. (2012). Teacher safety and authoritative school climate in high schools. American Journal of Education, 118, 1–25.CrossRef Gregory, A., Cornell, D., & Fan, X. (2012). Teacher safety and authoritative school climate in high schools. American Journal of Education, 118, 1–25.CrossRef
go back to reference Gregory, A., Cornell, D., & Fan, X. (2011). The relationship of school structure and support to suspension rates for Black and White high school students. American Educational Research Journal, 48, 904–934. doi:10.3102/0002831211398531.CrossRef Gregory, A., Cornell, D., & Fan, X. (2011). The relationship of school structure and support to suspension rates for Black and White high school students. American Educational Research Journal, 48, 904–934. doi:10.​3102/​0002831211398531​.CrossRef
go back to reference Gregory, A., Cornell, D., Fan, X., Sheras, P., Shih, T., & Huang, F. (2010). Authoritative school discipline: High school practices associated with lower student bullying and victimization. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 483–496. doi:10.1037/a0018562.CrossRef Gregory, A., Cornell, D., Fan, X., Sheras, P., Shih, T., & Huang, F. (2010). Authoritative school discipline: High school practices associated with lower student bullying and victimization. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 483–496. doi:10.​1037/​a0018562.CrossRef
go back to reference Gregory, A., & Ripski, M. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review, 37, 337–353. Gregory, A., & Ripski, M. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review, 37, 337–353.
go back to reference Howard, T. C. (2015). Why race and culture matter in schools: Closing the achievement gap in America’s classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press. Howard, T. C. (2015). Why race and culture matter in schools: Closing the achievement gap in America’s classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.
go back to reference Huang, F. (2014). Analyzing group level effects with clustered data using Taylor series linearization. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 19(13), 1–9. Huang, F. (2014). Analyzing group level effects with clustered data using Taylor series linearization. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 19(13), 1–9.
go back to reference Huang, F., Cornell, D., Konold, T., Meyer, P., Lacey, A., Nekvasil, E., Heilbrun, A., & Shukla, K. (2015). Multilevel factor structure and concurrent validity of the teacher version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey. Journal of School Health, 85, 843–851. doi:10.1111/josh.12340.CrossRefPubMed Huang, F., Cornell, D., Konold, T., Meyer, P., Lacey, A., Nekvasil, E., Heilbrun, A., & Shukla, K. (2015). Multilevel factor structure and concurrent validity of the teacher version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey. Journal of School Health, 85, 843–851. doi:10.​1111/​josh.​12340.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Huang, F., & Cornell, D. (2016). Multilevel factor structure, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability of the high school teacher version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34, 536–549. doi:10.1177/0734282915621439.CrossRef Huang, F., & Cornell, D. (2016). Multilevel factor structure, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability of the high school teacher version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34, 536–549. doi:10.​1177/​0734282915621439​.CrossRef
go back to reference Hung, A. H., Luebbe, A. M., & Flaspohler, P. D. (2015). Measuring school climate: Factor analysis and relations to emotional problems, conduct problems, and victimization in middle school students. School Mental Health, 7, 105–119. doi:10.1007/s12310-014-9131-y.CrossRef Hung, A. H., Luebbe, A. M., & Flaspohler, P. D. (2015). Measuring school climate: Factor analysis and relations to emotional problems, conduct problems, and victimization in middle school students. School Mental Health, 7, 105–119. doi:10.​1007/​s12310-014-9131-y.CrossRef
go back to reference Jia, Y., Konold, T., & Cornell, D. (2015). Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates. School Psychology Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/spq0000139. Jia, Y., Konold, T., & Cornell, D. (2015). Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates. School Psychology Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi:10.​1037/​spq0000139.
go back to reference Johnson, S. L. (2009). Improving the school environment to reduce school violence: A review of the literature. Journal of School Health, 79, 451–465.CrossRefPubMed Johnson, S. L. (2009). Improving the school environment to reduce school violence: A review of the literature. Journal of School Health, 79, 451–465.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Johnson, M. K., Crosnoe, R., & Elder Jr, G. H. (2001). Students’ attachment and academic engagement: The role of race and ethnicity. Sociology of Education, 74(4), 318–340. Johnson, M. K., Crosnoe, R., & Elder Jr, G. H. (2001). Students’ attachment and academic engagement: The role of race and ethnicity. Sociology of Education, 74(4), 318–340.
go back to reference Juvonen, J., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2006). Ethnic diversity and perceptions of safety in urban middle schools. Psychological Science, 17, 393–400.CrossRefPubMed Juvonen, J., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2006). Ethnic diversity and perceptions of safety in urban middle schools. Psychological Science, 17, 393–400.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kish, L., & Frankel, M. R. (1974). Inference from complex samples. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 36, 1–37. Kish, L., & Frankel, M. R. (1974). Inference from complex samples. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 36, 1–37.
go back to reference Klein, J., & Cornell, D. (2010). Is the link between large high schools and student victimization an illusion? Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 933–946. doi:10.1037/a0019896. Klein, J., & Cornell, D. (2010). Is the link between large high schools and student victimization an illusion? Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 933–946. doi:10.​1037/​a0019896.
go back to reference Klein, J., Cornell, D., & Konold, T. (2013). Relationships between bullying, school climate, and student risk behaviors. School Psychology Quarterly, 27, 154–169. doi:10.1037/a0029350.CrossRef Klein, J., Cornell, D., & Konold, T. (2013). Relationships between bullying, school climate, and student risk behaviors. School Psychology Quarterly, 27, 154–169. doi:10.​1037/​a0029350.CrossRef
go back to reference Konold, T. R., & Cornell, D. (2015a). Measurement and structural relations of an Authoritative School Climate model: A multi-level latent variable investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 53, 447–461.CrossRefPubMed Konold, T. R., & Cornell, D. (2015a). Measurement and structural relations of an Authoritative School Climate model: A multi-level latent variable investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 53, 447–461.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Konold, T. R., & Cornell, D. (2015b). Multilevel multitrait—multimethod model of structurally different and interchangeable raters of school climate. Psychological Assessment, 27, 1097–1109. doi:10.1037/pas0000098.CrossRefPubMed Konold, T. R., & Cornell, D. (2015b). Multilevel multitrait—multimethod model of structurally different and interchangeable raters of school climate. Psychological Assessment, 27, 1097–1109. doi:10.​1037/​pas0000098.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Konold, T., Cornell, D., Huang, F., Meyer, P., Lacey, A., & Nekvasil, E., et al. (2014). Multilevel multi-informant structure of the Authoritative School Climate Survey. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 238.CrossRefPubMed Konold, T., Cornell, D., Huang, F., Meyer, P., Lacey, A., & Nekvasil, E., et al. (2014). Multilevel multi-informant structure of the Authoritative School Climate Survey. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 238.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Koth, C. W., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). A multilevel study of predictors of student perceptions of school climate: The effect of classroom-level factors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 96–104.CrossRef Koth, C. W., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). A multilevel study of predictors of student perceptions of school climate: The effect of classroom-level factors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 96–104.CrossRef
go back to reference Larzelere, R. E., Morris, A. S., & Harrist, A. W. (2013). Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRef Larzelere, R. E., Morris, A. S., & Harrist, A. W. (2013). Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRef
go back to reference Lee, J. S. (2012). The effects of the teacher–student relationship and academic press on student engagement and academic performance. International Journal of Educational Research, 53, 330–340.CrossRef Lee, J. S. (2012). The effects of the teacher–student relationship and academic press on student engagement and academic performance. International Journal of Educational Research, 53, 330–340.CrossRef
go back to reference Olweus, D. (2007). The Olweus Bullying Questionnaire. Center City, MN: Hazelden. Olweus, D. (2007). The Olweus Bullying Questionnaire. Center City, MN: Hazelden.
go back to reference Phillips, S. F., & Rowley, J. F. S. (2015). The Tripod School Climate Index: An invariant measure of school safety and relationships. Social Work Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1093/swr/svv036. Phillips, S. F., & Rowley, J. F. S. (2015). The Tripod School Climate Index: An invariant measure of school safety and relationships. Social Work Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.​1093/​swr/​svv036.
go back to reference Ramelow, D., Currie, D., & Felder-Puig, R. (2015). The assessment of school climate review and appraisal of published student-report measures. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 731–743.CrossRef Ramelow, D., Currie, D., & Felder-Puig, R. (2015). The assessment of school climate review and appraisal of published student-report measures. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 731–743.CrossRef
go back to reference Rust, K. (1985). Variance estimation for complex estimators in sample surveys. Journal of Official Statistics, 1, 381–397. Rust, K. (1985). Variance estimation for complex estimators in sample surveys. Journal of Official Statistics, 1, 381–397.
go back to reference Shirley, E., & Cornell, D. (2011). The contribution of student perceptions of school climate to understanding the disproportionate punishment of African American students in middle school. School Psychology International, 33, 115–134. doi:10.1177/0143034311406815.CrossRef Shirley, E., & Cornell, D. (2011). The contribution of student perceptions of school climate to understanding the disproportionate punishment of African American students in middle school. School Psychology International, 33, 115–134. doi:10.​1177/​0143034311406815​.CrossRef
go back to reference Shukla, K., Konold, T., & Cornell, D. (2016). Profiles of student perceptions of school climate: Relations with risk behaviors and academic outcomes. American Journal of Community Psychology, 57, 291–307. doi:10.1002/ajcp.12044.CrossRefPubMed Shukla, K., Konold, T., & Cornell, D. (2016). Profiles of student perceptions of school climate: Relations with risk behaviors and academic outcomes. American Journal of Community Psychology, 57, 291–307. doi:10.​1002/​ajcp.​12044.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Thornberry, T. P., Lizotte, A. J., Krohn, M. D., Farnworth, M., & Jang, S. J. (1991). Testing interactional theory: An examination of reciprocal causal relationships among family, school, and delinquency. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 82(1), 3–35. Thornberry, T. P., Lizotte, A. J., Krohn, M. D., Farnworth, M., & Jang, S. J. (1991). Testing interactional theory: An examination of reciprocal causal relationships among family, school, and delinquency. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 82(1), 3–35.
go back to reference U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. (2014). Civil rights data collection: Data snapshot: School discipline (Issue brief no. 1). Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. (2014). Civil rights data collection: Data snapshot: School discipline (Issue brief no. 1). Washington, DC.
go back to reference Voight, A., Hanson, T., O’Malley, M., & Adekanye, L. (2015). The racial school climate gap: Within-school disparities in students’ experiences of safety, support, and connectedness. American Journal of Community Psychology. Online publication. doi:10.1007/s10464-015-9751-x. Voight, A., Hanson, T., O’Malley, M., & Adekanye, L. (2015). The racial school climate gap: Within-school disparities in students’ experiences of safety, support, and connectedness. American Journal of Community Psychology. Online publication. doi:10.​1007/​s10464-015-9751-x.
go back to reference Wang, M. T., & Degol, J. L. (2016). School climate: A review of the construct, measurement, and impact on student outcomes. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 315–352.CrossRef Wang, M. T., & Degol, J. L. (2016). School climate: A review of the construct, measurement, and impact on student outcomes. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 315–352.CrossRef
go back to reference Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 28, 12–23.CrossRef Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 28, 12–23.CrossRef
go back to reference Wallace, J. M., Goodkind, S., Wallace, C. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2008). Racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline among U.S. high school students: 1991-2005. Negro Education Review, 59, 47–62. Wallace, J. M., Goodkind, S., Wallace, C. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2008). Racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline among U.S. high school students: 1991-2005. Negro Education Review, 59, 47–62.
Metagegevens
Titel
Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceptions of School Climate and Its Association with Student Engagement and Peer Aggression
Auteurs
Timothy Konold
Dewey Cornell
Kathan Shukla
Francis Huang
Publicatiedatum
23-09-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 6/2017
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0576-1

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2017

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 6/2017 Naar de uitgave