Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The goals of this special section are to examine the state-of-the-science regarding race/ethnicity and racism as they contribute to health disparities and to articulate a research agenda to guide future research. In the first paper, Myers presents an integrative theoretical framework for understanding how racism, poverty, and other major stressors relate to health through inter-related psychosocial and bio-behavioral pathways. Williams and Mohammed review the evidence concerning associations between racism and health, addressing the multiple levels at which racism can operate and commenting on important methodological issues. Klonoff provides a review and update of the literature concerning ethnicity-related disparities in healthcare, and addresses factors that may contribute to these disparities. Brondolo and colleagues consider racism from a stress and coping perspective, and review the literature concerning racial identity, anger coping, and social support as potential moderators of the racism-health association. Finally, Castro and colleagues describe an ecodevelopmental model that can serve as an integrative framework to examine multi-level social–cultural influences on health and health behavior. In aggregate, the special section papers address theoretical and methodological issues central to understanding the determinants of health disparities, with the aim of providing direction for future research critical to developing effective interventions to reduce these disparities.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Heart Association. (2008). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2008 Update. Dallas, Texas: American Heart Association.
Borrell, L. N., Jacobs, D. R., Jr, Williams, D. R., Pletcher, M. J., Houston, T. K., & Kiefe, C. I. (2007). Self-reported racial discrimination and substance use in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Adults Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166, 1068–1079. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwm180. PubMedCrossRef
Brondolo, E., Brady, N., Libby, D. J., & Pencille, M. (2008). Racism as a psychosocial stressor. In R. Contrada, & A. Baum (Eds.), Handbook of Stress Science. New York: Springer, in press.
Brondolo, E., Brady, N., Pencille, M., Beatty, D., & Contrada, R. J. (2009). Coping with racism: A selective review of the literature and a theoretical and methodological critique. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32. doi: 10.1007/s10865-008-9193-0.
Castro, F. G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Boehm-Smith, E. (2009). Ecodevelopmental contexts for promoting exercise for preventing diabetes among racial/ethnic minority populations. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32.
Choi, Y., Harachi, T. W., Gillmore, M. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2006). Are multiracial adolescents at greater risk? Comparisons of rates, patterns, and correlates of substance use and violence between monoracial and multiracial adolescents. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 86–97. doi: 10.1037/0002-9418.104.22.168. PubMedCrossRef
Contrada, R. J., Ashmore, R. D., Gary, M. L., Coups, E., Egeth, J. D., Sewell, A., et al. (2001). Measures of ethnicity-related stress: Psychometric properties, ethnic group differences, and associations with well-being. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1775–1820. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2001.tb00205.x. CrossRef
Jasso, G., Massey, D. S., Rosenzweig, M. R., & Smith, J. P. (2004). Immigrant Health-Selectivity and Acculturation. In N. B. Anderson, R. A. Bulatao, & B. Cohen (Eds.), Critical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life (pp. 227–266). National Academies Press: Washington DC.
Kassai, S. C., & Motta, R. W. (2006). An investigation of potential Holocaust-related secondary traumatization in the third generation. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 8, 35–47. PubMed
Klonoff, E. A. (2009). Disparities in the provision of medical care: An outcome in search of an explanation. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32.
Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (2000). Racial discrimination and cigarette smoking among Blacks: Findings from two studies. Ethnicity & Disease, 10, 195–202.
McNeilly, M. D., Robinson, E. L., Anderson, N. B., Pieper, C. F., Shah, A., Toth, P. S., et al. (1995). Effects of racist provocation and social support on cardiovascular reactivity in African-American women. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2, 321–338. doi: 10.1207/s15327558ijbm0204_3. PubMedCrossRef
Myers, H. F. (2009). Ethnicity- and socio-economic status-related stresses in context: An integrative review and conceptual model. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32. doi: 10.1007/s10865-008-9181-4.
National Center for Health Statistics. (2008). Health, United States, 2007, with chartbook on trends in the health of Americans (Rep. No. 76–641496). Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics.
Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. (2008). US Population Projections: 2005–2050. Washington DC: Pew Research Center.
Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2006. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.
Shavers, V. L., & Shavers, B. S. (2006). Racism and health inequity among Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98, 386–396. PubMed
Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC, US: National Academies Press.
Taylor, D. M., Ruggerio, K. M., & Louis, W. R. (1996). Personal/group discrimination discrepancy: Towards a two-factor explanation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science (Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement), 28, 193–202. CrossRef
Thrasher, A. D., Earp, J. A., Golin, C. E., & Zimmer, C. R. (2008). Discrimination, distrust, and racial/ethnic disparities in antiretroviral therapy adherence among a national sample of HIV-infected patients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS), 49, 84–93. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181845589. CrossRef
Treiber, F. A., Kamarck, T., Schneiderman, N., Sheffield, D., Kapuku, G., & Taylor, T. (2003). Cardiovascular reactivity and development of preclinical and clinical disease states. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 46–62. PubMed
Tull, E. S., Sheu, Y. T., Butler, C., & Cornelious, K. (2005). Relationships between perceived stress, coping behavior and cortisol secretion in women with high and low levels of internalized racism. Journal of the National Medical Association, 97, 206–212. PubMed
U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.htm. Accessed 24 November 2008.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Williams, D. R., & Mohammed, S. A. (2009). Discrimination and racial disparities in health: Evidence and needed research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32.
- Race, racism and health: disparities, mechanisms, and interventions
Linda C. Gallo
Hector F. Myers
- Springer US