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07-02-2021 | Uitgave 6/2021 Open Access

Quality of Life Research 6/2021

Quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes after switching to insulin degludec: results from a cross-sectional survey

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 6/2021
Chioma Uzoigwe, Michael Radin, Carol M. Hamersky, Mitch DeKoven, Cassie Holt, Swapna Karkare, William H. Polonsky
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Supplementary Information

The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-020-02753-6.

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Five quality of life (QoL) domains are particularly important to patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using basal insulin—sense of physical well-being, sense of safety regarding hypoglycemia, sense of diabetes as burdensome, feelings of freedom and flexibility, and sleep quality.


An online survey assessed these QoL domains in adult patients with T2D in the USA who had switched from a previous basal insulin to insulin degludec (IDeg): modified versions of the World Health Organization (Five) Well-Being Index (WHO-5), Hypoglycemia Attitudes and Behavior Scale (HABS; confidence and anxiety subscales only), and Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS; emotional burden and regimen-related distress subscales only); three items assessing feelings of freedom and flexibility; and one item assessing sleep quality (hours of restful sleep). Patients rated each item for their previous basal insulin and currently while using IDeg. Correlations between sleep quality and the other QoL scales were also assessed.


In total, 152 patients completed the survey and were included in the study sample. Patients reported significantly improved scores while using IDeg on all WHO-5, DDS, HABS, feelings of freedom and flexibility item scores, and total raw/mean subscale scores (P < 0.0001). Patients also reported a significantly greater number of hours of restful sleep [mean (SD) 6.6 (2.0) vs. 5.5 (1.8); P < 0.0001]. Better sleep quality statistically significantly correlated with improved QoL in all other domains assessed.


Treatment with IDeg after switching from a previous basal insulin was associated with statistically significant improvements in all QoL domains assessed.

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