Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 8/2012

01-08-2012 | Original Paper

Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Synthesis for Evidence-Based Practice

Auteurs: Matthew Siegel, Amy A. Beaulieu

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 8/2012

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative method specific to autism research (Reichow et al. in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38:1311–1319, 2008). Results are presented by agent and primary target symptom(s). The findings suggest established evidence for relatively few agents, with preliminary and promising evidence for a larger group. Challenges and opportunities in the developing field of ASD psychopharmacology are identified, and recommendations for further research are provided.
Literatuur
go back to reference Akhondzadeh, S., Erfani, S., Mohammadi, M. R., Tehrani-Doost, M., Amini, H., Gudarzi, S. S., et al. (2004). Cyproheptadine in the treatment of autistic disorder: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics, 29(2), 145–150. CrossRef Akhondzadeh, S., Erfani, S., Mohammadi, M. R., Tehrani-Doost, M., Amini, H., Gudarzi, S. S., et al. (2004). Cyproheptadine in the treatment of autistic disorder: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics, 29(2), 145–150. CrossRef
go back to reference Akhondzadeh, S., Fallah, J., Mohammadi, M. R., Imani, R., Mohammadi, M., Salehi, B., et al. (2010). Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pentoxifylline added to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 34, 32–36. PubMedCrossRef Akhondzadeh, S., Fallah, J., Mohammadi, M. R., Imani, R., Mohammadi, M., Salehi, B., et al. (2010). Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pentoxifylline added to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 34, 32–36. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Aman, M. G., Singh, N. N., & Stewart, A. W. (1985). The aberrant behavior checklist: A behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects. American Journal of Mental Deficiencies, 89, 485–491. Aman, M. G., Singh, N. N., & Stewart, A. W. (1985). The aberrant behavior checklist: A behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects. American Journal of Mental Deficiencies, 89, 485–491.
go back to reference Aman, M. G., Lam, K. S., & Collier-Crespin, A. (2003). Prevalence and patterns of use of psychoactive medicines among individuals with autism in the Autism Society of Ohio. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 527–534. PubMedCrossRef Aman, M. G., Lam, K. S., & Collier-Crespin, A. (2003). Prevalence and patterns of use of psychoactive medicines among individuals with autism in the Autism Society of Ohio. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 527–534. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Anderson, L. T., Campbell, M., Grega, D. M., Perry, R., Small, A. M., & Green, W. H. (1984). Haloperidol in infantile autism: Effects on learning and behavioral symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141(10), 195–202. Anderson, L. T., Campbell, M., Grega, D. M., Perry, R., Small, A. M., & Green, W. H. (1984). Haloperidol in infantile autism: Effects on learning and behavioral symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141(10), 195–202.
go back to reference Anderson, L. T., Campbell, M., Adams, P., Small, A. M., Perry, R., & Shell, J. (1989). The effects of haloperidol on discrimination learning and behavioral symptoms in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(2), 227–239. PubMedCrossRef Anderson, L. T., Campbell, M., Adams, P., Small, A. M., Perry, R., & Shell, J. (1989). The effects of haloperidol on discrimination learning and behavioral symptoms in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(2), 227–239. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Arnold, L. E., Aman, M. G., Cook, A. M., Witwer, A. N., Hall, K. L., Thompson, S., et al. (2006). Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: Placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(10), 1196–1205. PubMedCrossRef Arnold, L. E., Aman, M. G., Cook, A. M., Witwer, A. N., Hall, K. L., Thompson, S., et al. (2006). Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: Placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(10), 1196–1205. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beaulieu, A., Tweed, L., & Connolly, N. (2009). Interventions for autism spectrum disorders: State of the evidence. Augusta, Maine: Muskie School of Public Service and Maine Department of Health and Human Services. Beaulieu, A., Tweed, L., & Connolly, N. (2009). Interventions for autism spectrum disorders: State of the evidence. Augusta, Maine: Muskie School of Public Service and Maine Department of Health and Human Services.
go back to reference Beduin, A. S., & de Haan, L. (2010). Off-label second generation antipsychotics for impulse regulation disorders: A review. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 43(3), 45–81. Beduin, A. S., & de Haan, L. (2010). Off-label second generation antipsychotics for impulse regulation disorders: A review. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 43(3), 45–81.
go back to reference Belsito, L., Law, P., Kirk, K., Landa, R. J., & Zimmerman, A. W. (2001). Lamotrigine therapy for autistic disorder: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(2), 175–181. PubMedCrossRef Belsito, L., Law, P., Kirk, K., Landa, R. J., & Zimmerman, A. W. (2001). Lamotrigine therapy for autistic disorder: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(2), 175–181. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Campbell, M., Anderson, L. T., Small, A. M., Locascio, J. J., Lynch, N. S., & Choroco, M. C. (1990). Naltrexone in autistic children: A double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 26(1), 130–135. PubMed Campbell, M., Anderson, L. T., Small, A. M., Locascio, J. J., Lynch, N. S., & Choroco, M. C. (1990). Naltrexone in autistic children: A double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 26(1), 130–135. PubMed
go back to reference Campbell, M., Anderson, L. T., Small, A. M., Adams, P., Gonzalez, N. M., & Ernst, M. (1993). Naltrexone in autistic children: Behavioral symptoms and attentional learning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(6), 1283–1291. PubMedCrossRef Campbell, M., Anderson, L. T., Small, A. M., Adams, P., Gonzalez, N. M., & Ernst, M. (1993). Naltrexone in autistic children: Behavioral symptoms and attentional learning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(6), 1283–1291. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chez, M. G., Buchanan, T. M., Becker, M., Kessler, J., Aimonovitch, M. C., & Mrazek, S. R. (2003). Donepezil hydrochloride: A double-blind study in autistic children. Journal of Pediatric Neurology, 1(2), 83–88. Chez, M. G., Buchanan, T. M., Becker, M., Kessler, J., Aimonovitch, M. C., & Mrazek, S. R. (2003). Donepezil hydrochloride: A double-blind study in autistic children. Journal of Pediatric Neurology, 1(2), 83–88.
go back to reference Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433. PubMedCrossRef Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Feldman, H. M., Kolmen, B. K., & Gonzaga, A. M. (1999). Naltrexone and communication skills in young children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(5), 587–593. PubMedCrossRef Feldman, H. M., Kolmen, B. K., & Gonzaga, A. M. (1999). Naltrexone and communication skills in young children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(5), 587–593. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Freeman, J. B., Choate-Summers, M. L., Garcia, A. M., Moore, P. S., Sapyta, J. J., Khanna, M. S., et al. (2009). The pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment study II: Rationale, design and methods. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3(1), 4. PubMedCrossRef Freeman, J. B., Choate-Summers, M. L., Garcia, A. M., Moore, P. S., Sapyta, J. J., Khanna, M. S., et al. (2009). The pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment study II: Rationale, design and methods. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3(1), 4. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gordon, C. T., State, R. C., Nelson, J. F., Hamburger, S. D., & Rapoport, J. L. (1993). A double-blind comparison of clomipramine, deipramine, and placebo in the treatment of autistic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 441–447. PubMedCrossRef Gordon, C. T., State, R. C., Nelson, J. F., Hamburger, S. D., & Rapoport, J. L. (1993). A double-blind comparison of clomipramine, deipramine, and placebo in the treatment of autistic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 441–447. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Handen, B. L., Johnson, C. R., & Lubetsky, M. (2000). Efficacy of methylphenidate among children with autism and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 245–255. PubMedCrossRef Handen, B. L., Johnson, C. R., & Lubetsky, M. (2000). Efficacy of methylphenidate among children with autism and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 245–255. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Handen, B., Sahl, R., & Harden, A. (2008). Guanfacine in children with autism and/or intellectual disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29(4), 303–308. PubMedCrossRef Handen, B., Sahl, R., & Harden, A. (2008). Guanfacine in children with autism and/or intellectual disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29(4), 303–308. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hellings, J. A., Weckbaugh, M., Nickel, E. J., Cain, S. E., Zarcone, J. R., Reese, R. M., et al. (2005). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of valproate for aggression in youth with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15(4), 682–692. PubMedCrossRef Hellings, J. A., Weckbaugh, M., Nickel, E. J., Cain, S. E., Zarcone, J. R., Reese, R. M., et al. (2005). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of valproate for aggression in youth with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15(4), 682–692. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hollander, E., Phillips, A., Chaplin, W., Zagursky, K., Novotny, S., Wasserman, S., et al. (2005a). A placebo controlled crossover trial of liquid fluoxetine on repetitive behaviors in childhood and adolescent autism. Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of The American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(3), 582–589. CrossRef Hollander, E., Phillips, A., Chaplin, W., Zagursky, K., Novotny, S., Wasserman, S., et al. (2005a). A placebo controlled crossover trial of liquid fluoxetine on repetitive behaviors in childhood and adolescent autism. Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of The American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(3), 582–589. CrossRef
go back to reference Hollander, E., Soorya, L., Wasserman, S., Esposito, K., Chaplin, W., & Anagnostou, E. (2005b). Divalproex sodium vs. placebo in the treatment of repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorder. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Scientific Journal of The Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP), 9(2), 209–213. Hollander, E., Soorya, L., Wasserman, S., Esposito, K., Chaplin, W., & Anagnostou, E. (2005b). Divalproex sodium vs. placebo in the treatment of repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorder. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Scientific Journal of The Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP), 9(2), 209–213.
go back to reference Hollander, E., Wasserman, S., Swanson, E. N., Chaplin, W., Schapiro, M. L., Zagursky, K., et al. (2006). A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of olanzapine in childhood/adolescent pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 16, 541–548. CrossRef Hollander, E., Wasserman, S., Swanson, E. N., Chaplin, W., Schapiro, M. L., Zagursky, K., et al. (2006). A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of olanzapine in childhood/adolescent pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 16, 541–548. CrossRef
go back to reference Hollander, E., Chaplin, W., Soorya, L., Wasserman, S., Novotny, S., Russoff, J., et al. (2010). Divalproex sodium vs. placebo for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(4), 990–998. PubMedCrossRef Hollander, E., Chaplin, W., Soorya, L., Wasserman, S., Novotny, S., Russoff, J., et al. (2010). Divalproex sodium vs. placebo for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(4), 990–998. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jaselskis, C. A., Cook, E. H., Fletcher, K. E., & Leventhal, B. L. (1992). Clonidine treatment of hyperactive and impulsive children with autistic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12(5), 322–327. PubMedCrossRef Jaselskis, C. A., Cook, E. H., Fletcher, K. E., & Leventhal, B. L. (1992). Clonidine treatment of hyperactive and impulsive children with autistic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12(5), 322–327. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Johnson, C. P., & Myers, S. M. (2007). Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120(5), 1183–1215. PubMedCrossRef Johnson, C. P., & Myers, S. M. (2007). Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120(5), 1183–1215. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference King, B. H., & Bostic, J. Q. (2006). An update on pharmacologic treatments for autism spectrum disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America, 15(1), 161–175. CrossRef King, B. H., & Bostic, J. Q. (2006). An update on pharmacologic treatments for autism spectrum disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America, 15(1), 161–175. CrossRef
go back to reference King, B. H., Wright, D. M., Handen, B. L., Sikich, L., Zimmerman, A. W., McMahon, W., et al. (2001). Double-blind placebo-controlled study of amantadine hydrochloride in the treatment of children with autistic disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 658–665. PubMedCrossRef King, B. H., Wright, D. M., Handen, B. L., Sikich, L., Zimmerman, A. W., McMahon, W., et al. (2001). Double-blind placebo-controlled study of amantadine hydrochloride in the treatment of children with autistic disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 658–665. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference King, B. H., Hollander, E., Sikich, L., McCracken, J. T., Scahil, L., Bregman, J. D., et al. (2009). Lack of efficacy of citalopram in children with autism spectrum disorders and high levels of repetitive behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 583–590. PubMedCrossRef King, B. H., Hollander, E., Sikich, L., McCracken, J. T., Scahil, L., Bregman, J. D., et al. (2009). Lack of efficacy of citalopram in children with autism spectrum disorders and high levels of repetitive behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 583–590. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kolmen, B. K., Feldman, H. M., Handen, B. L., & Janosky, J. E. (1995). Naltrexone in young autistic children: A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(2), 223–231. PubMedCrossRef Kolmen, B. K., Feldman, H. M., Handen, B. L., & Janosky, J. E. (1995). Naltrexone in young autistic children: A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(2), 223–231. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159–174. PubMedCrossRef Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159–174. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference LeCavalier, L. (2006). Behavioral and emotional problems in young people with pervasive developmental disorders: Relative prevalence, effects of subject characteristics, and empirical classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 1101–1114. PubMedCrossRef LeCavalier, L. (2006). Behavioral and emotional problems in young people with pervasive developmental disorders: Relative prevalence, effects of subject characteristics, and empirical classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 1101–1114. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Marcus, R. N., Owen, R., Kamen, L., Manos, G., McQuade, R. D., Carson, W. H., et al. (2009). A placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(11), 1110–1119. PubMedCrossRef Marcus, R. N., Owen, R., Kamen, L., Manos, G., McQuade, R. D., Carson, W. H., et al. (2009). A placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(11), 1110–1119. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McDougle, C. J., Scahill, L., Aman, M. G., McCracken, J. T., Tierney, E., Davies, M., et al. (2005). Risperidone for the core symptom domains of autism: Results from the study by the autism network of the research units on pediatric psychopharmacology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(6), 1142–1148. PubMedCrossRef McDougle, C. J., Scahill, L., Aman, M. G., McCracken, J. T., Tierney, E., Davies, M., et al. (2005). Risperidone for the core symptom domains of autism: Results from the study by the autism network of the research units on pediatric psychopharmacology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(6), 1142–1148. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mcpheeters, M. L., Warren, Z., Sathe, N., et al. (2011). A systematic review of medical treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 127, e1312. PubMedCrossRef Mcpheeters, M. L., Warren, Z., Sathe, N., et al. (2011). A systematic review of medical treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 127, e1312. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Miral, S., Gencer, O., Inal-Emiroglu, F. N., Baykara, B., Baykara, A., & Dirik, E. (2008). Risperidone versus haloperidol in children and adolescents with AD: A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17(1), 1–8. PubMedCrossRef Miral, S., Gencer, O., Inal-Emiroglu, F. N., Baykara, B., Baykara, A., & Dirik, E. (2008). Risperidone versus haloperidol in children and adolescents with AD: A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17(1), 1–8. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Owen, R., Sikich, L., Marcus, R. N., Corey-Lisle, P., Manos, G., McQuade, R. D., et al. (2009). Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Pediatrics, 124, 1533–1540. PubMedCrossRef Owen, R., Sikich, L., Marcus, R. N., Corey-Lisle, P., Manos, G., McQuade, R. D., et al. (2009). Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Pediatrics, 124, 1533–1540. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Quintana, H., Birmaher, B., Stedge, D., Lennon, S., Freed, J., Bridge, J., et al. (1995). Use of methylphenidate in the treatment of children with autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25(3), 283–294. PubMedCrossRef Quintana, H., Birmaher, B., Stedge, D., Lennon, S., Freed, J., Bridge, J., et al. (1995). Use of methylphenidate in the treatment of children with autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25(3), 283–294. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Reichow, B., Volkmar, F. R., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2008). Development of the evaluative method for evaluating and determining evidence-based practices in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1311–1319. PubMedCrossRef Reichow, B., Volkmar, F. R., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2008). Development of the evaluative method for evaluating and determining evidence-based practices in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1311–1319. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Remington, G., Sloman, L., Konstantareas, M., Parker, K., & Gow, R. (2001). Clomipramine versus haloperidol in the treatment of autistic disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 440–444. CrossRef Remington, G., Sloman, L., Konstantareas, M., Parker, K., & Gow, R. (2001). Clomipramine versus haloperidol in the treatment of autistic disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 440–444. CrossRef
go back to reference Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. (2002). Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. New England Journal of Medicine, 347(5), 314–321. CrossRef Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. (2002). Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. New England Journal of Medicine, 347(5), 314–321. CrossRef
go back to reference Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. (2005). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of methylphenidate in children with hyperactivity associated with pervasive developmental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1266–1274. CrossRef Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. (2005). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of methylphenidate in children with hyperactivity associated with pervasive developmental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1266–1274. CrossRef
go back to reference Scahill, L., Riddle, M., & McSwiggin-Hardin, M. (1997). Children’s yale-brown obsessive compulsive scale: Reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 844–852. PubMedCrossRef Scahill, L., Riddle, M., & McSwiggin-Hardin, M. (1997). Children’s yale-brown obsessive compulsive scale: Reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 844–852. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shea, S., Turgay, A., Carroll, A., Schulz, M., Orlik, H., Smith, I., et al. (2004). Risperidone in the treatment of disruptive behavioral symptoms in children with autistic and other pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatrics, 114, e634–e641. PubMedCrossRef Shea, S., Turgay, A., Carroll, A., Schulz, M., Orlik, H., Smith, I., et al. (2004). Risperidone in the treatment of disruptive behavioral symptoms in children with autistic and other pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatrics, 114, e634–e641. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wasserman, S., Iyengar, R., Chaplin, W. F., Watner, D., Waldoks, S. E., Anagnostou, E., et al. (2006). Levetiracetam versus placebo in childhood and adolescent autism: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21(6), 363–367. PubMedCrossRef Wasserman, S., Iyengar, R., Chaplin, W. F., Watner, D., Waldoks, S. E., Anagnostou, E., et al. (2006). Levetiracetam versus placebo in childhood and adolescent autism: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21(6), 363–367. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Willemsen-Swinkels, S. H., Buitelaar, J. K., Weijnen, F. G., & van Engeland, H. (1995). Placebo-controlled acute dosage naltrexone study in young autistic children. Psychiatry Research, 58(3), 203–215. PubMedCrossRef Willemsen-Swinkels, S. H., Buitelaar, J. K., Weijnen, F. G., & van Engeland, H. (1995). Placebo-controlled acute dosage naltrexone study in young autistic children. Psychiatry Research, 58(3), 203–215. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wong, H. H. L., & Smith, R. G. (2006). Patterns of complementary and alternative medical therapy use in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 901–909. PubMedCrossRef Wong, H. H. L., & Smith, R. G. (2006). Patterns of complementary and alternative medical therapy use in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 901–909. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Synthesis for Evidence-Based Practice
Auteurs
Matthew Siegel
Amy A. Beaulieu
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2012
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 8/2012
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1399-2