Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 1/2017

10-09-2016

Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) in Outpatients with Anxiety and Mood Disorders

Auteurs: Lauren A. Rutter, Timothy A. Brown

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 1/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) in a sample of 536 outpatients presenting at a specialty clinic for anxiety and mood disorders. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the unidimensionality of the GAD-7. This model did not fit the data well. The CFA solution was respecified correlating residuals among items assessing somatic symptoms. This respecified model fit the data well. A series of multiple-groups CFAs determined that the measurement properties of the GAD-7 were invariant between sexes. Scale reliability estimates of the GAD-7 were favorable for the full sample, and for males and females. Sensitivity and specificity could not be balanced at any cut-point. Findings attest to the value of this instrument as a dimensional indicator of GAD severity rather than a screening tool for the presence or absence of the disorder in outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders.

Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:

BSL Psychologie Totaal

Met BSL Psychologie Totaal blijf je als professional steeds op de hoogte van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen binnen jouw vak. Met het online abonnement heb je toegang tot een groot aantal boeken, protocollen, vaktijdschriften en e-learnings op het gebied van psychologie en psychiatrie. Zo kun je op je gemak en wanneer het jou het beste uitkomt verdiepen in jouw vakgebied.

Voetnoten
1
To address this issue, we tested the relationship between the GAD-7 and high negative affect/neuroticism using the Neuroticism scale from the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NFFI-N). Although the NFFI-N was moderately correlated with the GAD-7 factor (r = .56), inferential tests of the differential magnitude of relationships indicated that the GAD-7 factor was more strongly correlated with the DASS-S (r = .68, z = 4.50, p < .001) and the PSWQ (r = .66, z = 3.93, p < .001) than the NFFI-N. Although providing support for the convergent validity of the GAD-7, the results also indicated that the GAD-7 factor was more strongly correlated with the NFFI-N than with the DASS-D (r = .47, z = 2.97, p < .01) and the OCD-R (r = .42, z = 3.40, p < .001) in accord with the notion that GAD is more closely related to neuroticism than other emotional disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, OCD). The test of the differential magnitude of correlations involving the GAD-7 and NFFI-N with the DASS-A was not significant (r = .52, z = 0.85).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Abramowitz, J. S., & Deacon, B. J. (2006). Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory—Revised: replication and extension with a clinical sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 1016–1035. CrossRefPubMed Abramowitz, J. S., & Deacon, B. J. (2006). Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory—Revised: replication and extension with a clinical sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 1016–1035. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Abramowitz, J. S., & Foa, E. B. (1998). Worries and obsessions in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder with and without comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 695–700. CrossRefPubMed Abramowitz, J. S., & Foa, E. B. (1998). Worries and obsessions in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder with and without comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 695–700. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Beard, C., & Björgvinsson, T. (2014). Beyond generalized anxiety disorder: psychometric properties of the GAD-7 in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 547–552. CrossRefPubMed Beard, C., & Björgvinsson, T. (2014). Beyond generalized anxiety disorder: psychometric properties of the GAD-7 in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 547–552. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brown, T. A. (2003). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire: multiple factors or method effects? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1411–1426. CrossRefPubMed Brown, T. A. (2003). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire: multiple factors or method effects? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1411–1426. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (2009). A proposal for a dimensional classification system based on the shared features of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders: implications for assessment and treatment. Psychological Assessment, 21, 256–271. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (2009). A proposal for a dimensional classification system based on the shared features of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders: implications for assessment and treatment. Psychological Assessment, 21, 256–271. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Brown, T.A., Antony, M. M., & Barlow, D.H . (1992). Psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in a clinical anxiety disorders sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30(1), 33–7. Brown, T.A., Antony, M. M., & Barlow, D.H . (1992). Psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in a clinical anxiety disorders sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30(1), 33–7.
go back to reference Brown T. A., Chorpita B. F., Korotitsch, W., & Barlow, D. H. (1997). Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30 35(1),79–89. Brown T. A., Chorpita B. F., Korotitsch, W., & Barlow, D. H. (1997). Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30 35(1),79–89.
go back to reference Brown, T. A., Campbell, L. A., Lehman, C. L., Grisham, J. R., & Mancill, R. B. (2001). Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 585–599. CrossRefPubMed Brown, T. A., Campbell, L. A., Lehman, C. L., Grisham, J. R., & Mancill, R. B. (2001). Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 585–599. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dear, B. F., Titov, N., Sunderland, M., McMillan, D., Anderson, T., Lorian, C., & Robinson, E. (2011). Psychometric comparison of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for measuring response during treatment of generalised anxiety disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 40, 216–227. CrossRefPubMed Dear, B. F., Titov, N., Sunderland, M., McMillan, D., Anderson, T., Lorian, C., & Robinson, E. (2011). Psychometric comparison of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for measuring response during treatment of generalised anxiety disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 40, 216–227. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Delgadillo, J., Payne, S., Gilbody, S., Godfrey, C., Gore, S., Jessop, D., & Dale, V. (2012). Brief case finding tools for anxiety disorders: validation of GAD-7 and GAD-7 in addictions treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 125, 37–42. CrossRefPubMed Delgadillo, J., Payne, S., Gilbody, S., Godfrey, C., Gore, S., Jessop, D., & Dale, V. (2012). Brief case finding tools for anxiety disorders: validation of GAD-7 and GAD-7 in addictions treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 125, 37–42. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Di Nardo, P. A., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Lifetime version (ADIS-IV-L). New York: Oxford University Press. Di Nardo, P. A., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Lifetime version (ADIS-IV-L). New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Donker, T., van Straten, A., Marks, I., & Cuijpers, P. (2011). Quick and easy self-rating of generalized anxiety disorder: validity of the Dutch web-based GAD-7, GAD-2 and GAD-SI. Psychiatry Research, 188, 58–64. CrossRefPubMed Donker, T., van Straten, A., Marks, I., & Cuijpers, P. (2011). Quick and easy self-rating of generalized anxiety disorder: validity of the Dutch web-based GAD-7, GAD-2 and GAD-SI. Psychiatry Research, 188, 58–64. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Leiberg, S., Langner, R., Kichic, R., Hajcak, G., & Salkovskis, P. M. (2002). The obsessive-compulsive inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychological Assessment, 14, 485–496. CrossRefPubMed Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Leiberg, S., Langner, R., Kichic, R., Hajcak, G., & Salkovskis, P. M. (2002). The obsessive-compulsive inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychological Assessment, 14, 485–496. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Grant, B. F., Goldstein, R. B., Chou, S. P., Huang, B., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., & Compton, W. M. (2009). Sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 1051–1066. CrossRefPubMed Grant, B. F., Goldstein, R. B., Chou, S. P., Huang, B., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., & Compton, W. M. (2009). Sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 1051–1066. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Greenberg, P. E., Sisitsky, T., Kessler, R. C., Finkelstein, S. N., Berndt, E. R., Davidson, J. R. T., & Fyer, A. J. (1999). The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 427–435. CrossRefPubMed Greenberg, P. E., Sisitsky, T., Kessler, R. C., Finkelstein, S. N., Berndt, E. R., Davidson, J. R. T., & Fyer, A. J. (1999). The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 427–435. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hoffman, D. L., Dukes, E. M., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2006). Human and economic burden of generalized anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 72–90. CrossRef Hoffman, D. L., Dukes, E. M., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2006). Human and economic burden of generalized anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 72–90. CrossRef
go back to reference Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef
go back to reference Kertz, S., Bigda‐Peyton, J., & Björgvinsson, T. (2013). Validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder‐7 Scale in an acute psychiatric sample. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 20, 456–464. PubMed Kertz, S., Bigda‐Peyton, J., & Björgvinsson, T. (2013). Validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder‐7 Scale in an acute psychiatric sample. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 20, 456–464. PubMed
go back to reference Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146, 317–325. CrossRefPubMed Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146, 317–325. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335–343. CrossRefPubMed Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335–343. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Löwe, B., Decker, O., Müller, S., Brähler, E., Schellberg, D., Herzog, W., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2008). Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population. Medical Care, 46, 266–274. CrossRefPubMed Löwe, B., Decker, O., Müller, S., Brähler, E., Schellberg, D., Herzog, W., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2008). Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population. Medical Care, 46, 266–274. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487–495. CrossRefPubMed Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487–495. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mills, S. D., Fox, R. S., Malcarne, V. L., Roesch, S. C., Champagne, B. R., & Sadler, G. R. (2014). The psychometric properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20, 463–468. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Mills, S. D., Fox, R. S., Malcarne, V. L., Roesch, S. C., Champagne, B. R., & Sadler, G. R. (2014). The psychometric properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20, 463–468. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2008–2014). Mplus 6.0 [Computer software]. Los Angeles: Author. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2008–2014). Mplus 6.0 [Computer software]. Los Angeles: Author.
go back to reference Raykov, T. (2001). Estimation of congeneric scale reliability via covariance structure models with nonlinear constraints. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 54, 315–323. CrossRefPubMed Raykov, T. (2001). Estimation of congeneric scale reliability via covariance structure models with nonlinear constraints. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 54, 315–323. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Raykov, T. (2004). Behavioral scale reliability and measurement invariance evaluation using latent variable modeling. Behavior Therapy, 35, 299–331. CrossRef Raykov, T. (2004). Behavioral scale reliability and measurement invariance evaluation using latent variable modeling. Behavior Therapy, 35, 299–331. CrossRef
go back to reference Roy-Byrne, P. P. (1996). Generalized anxiety and mixed anxiety-depression: association with disability and health care utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57, 86–91. PubMed Roy-Byrne, P. P. (1996). Generalized anxiety and mixed anxiety-depression: association with disability and health care utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57, 86–91. PubMed
go back to reference Roy-Byrne, P. P., & Katon, W. (1997). Generalized anxiety disorder in primary care: the precursor/modifier pathway to increased health care utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 34–40. CrossRefPubMed Roy-Byrne, P. P., & Katon, W. (1997). Generalized anxiety disorder in primary care: the precursor/modifier pathway to increased health care utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 34–40. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ruiz, M. A., Zamorano, E., García-Campayo, J., Pardo, A., Freire, O., & Rejas, J. (2011). Validity of the GAD-7 scale as an outcome measure of disability in patients with generalized anxiety disorders in primary care. Journal of Affective Disorders, 128, 277–286. CrossRefPubMed Ruiz, M. A., Zamorano, E., García-Campayo, J., Pardo, A., Freire, O., & Rejas, J. (2011). Validity of the GAD-7 scale as an outcome measure of disability in patients with generalized anxiety disorders in primary care. Journal of Affective Disorders, 128, 277–286. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sousa, T. V., Viveiros, A., Chai, M. V., Vicente, F. L., Jesus, G., Carnot, M. J., & Ferreira, P. L. (2015). Reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13, 1–8. CrossRef Sousa, T. V., Viveiros, A., Chai, M. V., Vicente, F. L., Jesus, G., Carnot, M. J., & Ferreira, P. L. (2015). Reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13, 1–8. CrossRef
go back to reference Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, Williams, J. B. W., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 1092–1097. CrossRefPubMed Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, Williams, J. B. W., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 1092–1097. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) in Outpatients with Anxiety and Mood Disorders
Auteurs
Lauren A. Rutter
Timothy A. Brown
Publicatiedatum
10-09-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 1/2017
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-016-9571-9