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Gepubliceerd in: Verslaving 2/2017

09-03-2017 | Artikel

Psychofarmaca en drugsgebruik in Vlaamse gevangenissen

Auteurs: Drs. Louis Favril, Prof. dr. Freya Vander Laenen

Gepubliceerd in: Verslaving | Uitgave 2/2017

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Samenvatting

In dit onderzoek bevroegen we een representatieve steekproef van 1326 gedetineerden in Vlaanderen. Eén op drie rapporteert illegaal drugsgebruik tijdens de detentie (34,8 %) en het gebruik van voorgeschreven psychofarmaca (36,4 %). Een vierde van de respondenten meldt een lifetime-diagnose van een middelengerelateerde stoornis (25,3 %) en een voorgeschiedenis van behandeling in de verslavingszorg (26,1 %). De prevalentiecijfers verschillen niet significant wat betreft geslacht, behalve voor psychoactieve medicatie, die tot tweemaal zoveel wordt voorgeschreven bij vrouwelijke gedetineerden. Ondanks de hoge prevalentiecijfers moeten we vaststellen dat van een geïntegreerd (drugs)hulpverleningsaanbod in Vlaamse gevangenissen geen sprake is.

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Voetnoten
1
Daaronder vallen zowel de huizen van bewaring (in Vlaanderen arresthuizen genoemd) als de strafhuizen voor definitief veroordeelden. Daar waar personen in voorhechtenis (beklaagden) in theorie verblijven in arresthuizen en veroordeelden in strafhuizen, is dit in de Belgische praktijk niet als dusdanig gedefinieerd; in vele penitentiaire inrichtingen in België huizen zowel beklaagden als veroordeelden. De term gevangenis verwijst vervolgens naar alle penitentiaire inrichtingen waar gedetineerden zijn opgesloten.
 
2
Internering is een strafrechterijke maatregel voor personen met een psychiatrische problematiek die strafbare feiten hebben gepleegd en ontoerekeningsvatbaar zijn verklaard door een rechter. De Belgische interneringsmaatregel heeft een Nederlandse equivalent, namelijk de terbeschikkingstelling (tbs). In 2015 betrof 8,2 % van de totale gedetineerdenpopulatie in België gedetineerden met het statuut van internering (geïnterneerden; DG EPI 2016). Aangezien dit een erg specifieke populatie betreft (Vandevelde et al. 2011), hebben we geïnterneerden a priori uit het onderzoek geëxcludeerd.
 
3
Zoals gerapporteerd in het jaarverslag van 2015 maakten mannen 95 % van de totale gedetineerdenpopulatie uit in België. De verdeling wat betreft detentiestatus bedroeg 65 % veroordeelden en 35 % beklaagden (wanneer geïnterneerden niet in rekening worden genomen; zie noot 2). Cijfers van de Raad van Europa (Aebi et al. 2015) duiden op een gemiddelde leeftijd van 36,2 jaar in de Belgische gevangenissen.
 
4
De categorieën waren 1) cannabis, hasj, 2) heroïne, 3) andere opiaten (zoals morfine, fentanyl) zonder voorschrift, 4) cocaïne, crack, 5) amfetaminen, speed, 6) ecstasy (XTC), MDMA, designerdrugs, 7) LSD, acid, 8) slaap- en kalmeermiddelen (benzodiazepinen) zonder voorschrift, 9) methadon, Subutex (buprenorfine), Suboxone, zonder voorschrift; 10) steroïden, en 11) andere illegale drugs. Bij deze laatste categorie vroegen we de respondenten te verduidelijken welke middelen dit precies waren.
 
5
Deze aanmeldingspunten zorgden voor een screening van problematisch drugsgebruik bij gedetineerden en voor de doorverwijzing naar de (ambulante of residentiële) drugshulpverlening, zodra gedetineerden in vrijheid werden gesteld.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Psychofarmaca en drugsgebruik in Vlaamse gevangenissen
Auteurs
Drs. Louis Favril
Prof. dr. Freya Vander Laenen
Publicatiedatum
09-03-2017
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Gepubliceerd in
Verslaving / Uitgave 2/2017
Print ISSN: 1574-1842
Elektronisch ISSN: 1875-7073
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12501-017-0110-5