Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Prior research on Expressed Emotion (EE) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS) suggests that parental attitudes that are overprotective or blur boundaries between the parent and child (i.e., the criteria for self-sacrifice/overprotection; SSOP) are related to increases in children’s behavior problems. Some theorists contend that parents who demonstrate high levels of SSOP treat their children more insensitively, but others argue that SSOP does not result in insensitive parenting during the early childhood years. To date, there is no evidence that can be brought to bear upon this tension within the field regarding the developmental implications of SSOP in childhood. This longitudinal investigation of 223 child-mother dyads (47.9% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.5% Hispanic/Latina) evaluated whether maternal insensitivity at age 6 mediated the link between mothers’ SSOP with respect to their 4-year-old children and children’s behavior problems (i.e., internalizing, attention/hyperactivity) at age 8. A path analysis revealed significant indirect pathways from mothers’ SSOP during the preschool period to children’s increased internalizing and attention/hyperactivity problems at age 8 via elevated maternal insensitivity at age 6. These associations did not differ significantly across groups as a function of child gender, maternal race/ethnicity, single-mother status, or family poverty. FMSS evaluations of SSOP may offer a culturally valid and clinically valuable screening tool to detect parental attitudes that confer elevated risks for insensitive parenting practices and later child adjustment difficulties.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aber, J. L., Belsky, J., Slade, A., & Crnic, K. (1999). Stability and change in mothers’ representations of their relationship with their toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 35(4), 1038–1047. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1248. CrossRefPubMed
Abidin, R. (1995). Parent stress index. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Anderson, L. P. (1999). Parentification in the context of the African American family. In N. D. Chase (Ed.), Burdened children: Theory, research, and treatment of parentification (pp. 154–170). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. CrossRef
Barkley, R. A. (1997). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Bell, R. Q. (1968). A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in studies of socialization. Psychological Review, 75(2), 81–95. CrossRef
Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. A. (1999). Internal working models in attachment relationships: A construct revisited. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 89–111). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Bugental, D. B., Johnston, C., New, M., & Silvester, J. (1998). Measuring parental attributions: Conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(4), 459–480. https://doi.org/10.1037//0893-3126.96.36.1999. CrossRef
Carter, A. S., Garrity-Rokous, F. E., Chazan-Cohen, R., Little, C., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2001). Maternal depression and comorbidity: Predicting early parenting, attachment security, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(1), 18–26. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200101000-00012. CrossRefPubMed
Derogatis, L. R. (1983). SCL-90-R: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual II for the revised version. Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.
Derogatis, L. R. (1993). Brief Symptom Inventory: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual. 4th ed. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson, Inc.
Egeland, B. (1982). 42-month teaching task code manual. Unpublished manuscript. Minneapolis, MN.
Egeland, B., Pianta, R., & O’Brien, M. A. (1993). Maternal intrusiveness in infancy and child maladaptation in early school years. Development and Psychopathology, 5(3), 359–370. CrossRef
Gar, N. S., & Hudson, J. L. (2008). An examination of the interactions between mothers and children with anxiety disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(12), 1266–1274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.08.006. CrossRefPubMed
Gar, N. S., & Hudson, J. L. (2009). Changes in maternal expressed emotion toward clinically anxious children following cognitive behavioral therapy. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104(3), 346–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2009.06.001. CrossRefPubMed
Gibbs, J. T. & Huang, L. N. (Eds.) (2003). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Harkness, S., & Super, C. M. (2002). Culture and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 2. Biology and ecology of parenting (pp. 253–280). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hirshfeld, D. R., Biederman, J., Brody, L., Faraone, S. V., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (1997). Associations between expressed emotion and child behavioral inhibition and psychopathology: A pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(2), 205–213. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199702000-00011. CrossRef
Jacobvitz, D. B., Hazen, N., Curran, M., & Hitchens, K. (2004). Observations of early triadic family interactions: Boundary disturbances in the family predict symptoms of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 16(3), 577–592. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579404004675. CrossRefPubMed
Kaugars, A. S., Moody, E. J., Dennis, C., & Klinnert, M. D. (2007). Validity of the Five Minute Speech Sample in families with infants from low-income backgrounds. Infant Behavior & Development, 30(4), 690–696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2007.04.003. CrossRef
Kwon, J., Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C., Abell, S. C., Nordstrom-Bailey, B., Sokol, R. J., & Ager, J. (2006). The relations between maternal expressed emotion and children’s perceived self‐competence, behavior and intelligence in African‐American families. Early Child Development and Care, 176(2), 195–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443042000302681. CrossRef
López, S. R., Nelson Hipke, K., Polo, A. J., Jenkins, J. H., Karno, M., Vaughn, C., & Snyder, K. S. (2004). Ethnicity, expressed emotion, attributions, and course of schizophrenia: Family warmth matters. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(3), 428–39. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.113.3.428. CrossRefPubMed
López, S. R., Ramirez Garcia, J. I., Ullman, J. B., Kopelowicz, A., Jenkins, J., Breitborde, N. J. K., & Placencia, P. (2009). Cultural variability in the manifestation of expressed emotion. Family Process, 48(2), 179–194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2009.01276.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Magaña-Amato, A. (1993). Manual for coding expressed emotion from the five-minute speech sample: UCLA Family Project. Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA: University of California.
Magaña, A. B., Goldstein, M. J., Karno, M., Miklowitz, D. J., Jenkins, J., & Falloon, I. R. H. (1986). A brief method for assessing expressed emotion in relatives of psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Research, 17(3), 203–212. CrossRef
Mansoor, E., Morrow, C. E., Accornero, V. H., Xue, L., Johnson, A. L., Anthony, J. C., & Bandstra, E. S. (2012). Longitudinal effects of prenatal cocaine use on mother-child interactions at ages 3 and 5 years. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(1), 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e31823968ab. CrossRef
McCarty, C. A., Lau, A. S., Valeri, S. M., & Weisz, J. R. (2004). Parent-child interactions in relation to critical and emotionally overinvolved expressed emotion (EE): Is EE a proxy for behavior? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(1), 83–93. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JACP.0000007582.61879.6f. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
McConaughy, S. H., & Achenbach, T. M. (2004). Manual for the Test Observation Form for ages 2-18. ASEBA.
Morrell, J., & Murray, L. (2003). Parenting and the development of conduct disorder and hyperactive symptoms in childhood: A prospective longitudinal study from 2 months to 8 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(4), 489–508. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.t01-1-00139. CrossRefPubMed
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus user’s guide. 6th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Parke, R. D., Buriel, R., Damon, W., & Lerner, R. M. (2006). Socialization in the family: Ethnic and ecological perspectives. In: N. Eisenberg (ed.) Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3). (pp. 429–504). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44(2), 329–335. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.329. CrossRefPubMed
Peris, T. S., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2003). Family dynamics and preadolescent girls with ADHD: The relationship between expressed emotion, ADHD symptomatology, and comorbid disruptive behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44(8), 1177–1190. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00199. CrossRef
Rapee, R. M., Schniering, C. A., & Hudson, J. L. (2009). Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: origins and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 311–341. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153628. CrossRefPubMed
Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior Assessment System for Children. 2nd ed. Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing.
Rosenfarb, I. S., Bellack, A. S., & Aziz, N. (2006). Family interactions and the course of schizophrenia in African American and White patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(1), 112–120. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.115.1.112. CrossRefPubMed
Sameroff, A. J. (2005). Ports of entry and the dynamics of mother-infant interventions. In A. J. Sameroff, S. C. McDonough & K. Rosenblum (Eds.), Treating parent-infant relationship problems: Strategies for intervention (pp. 3–28). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. H., & Siegel, J. M. (1978). Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(5), 932–946. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.5.932. CrossRefPubMed
Sattler, J. M. (2008). Assessment of children: Cognitive foundations. 5th ed. La Mesa, CA: Author.
Silk, J. S., Ziegler, M. L., Whalen, D. J., Dahl, R. E., Ryan, N. D., Dietz, L. J., & Williamson, D. E. (2009). Expressed emotion in mothers of currently depressed, remitted, high-risk, and low-risk youth: links to child depression status and longitudinal course. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(1), 36–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410802575339. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Stubbe, D. E., Zahner, G. E., Goldstein, M. J., & Leckman, J. F. (1993). Diagnostic specificity of a brief measure of expressed emotion: A community study of children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(2), 139–154. CrossRef
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011a). Current population survey: annual social and economic supplement. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.census.gov/population/hispanic/data/2011.html.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011b). State and County QuickFacts. Retrieved January 11, 2011, from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06065.html.
Vaughn, C. (1989). Expressed emotion in family relationships. Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 30(1), 13–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00767.x. CrossRef
Wagner, N. J., Propper, C., Gueron-Sela, N., & Mills-Koonce, W. R. (2015). Dimensions of maternal parenting and infants’ autonomic functioning interactively predict early internalizing behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(3), 459–470. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0039-2. CrossRef
Wamboldt, F. S., O’Connor, S. L., Wamboldt, M. Z., Gavin, L. A., & Klinnert, M. D. (2000). The five minute speech sample in children with asthma: Deconstructing the construct of expressed emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(7), 887–898. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00676. CrossRefPubMed
Wechsler, D. (2002). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. 3rd ed. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment, Inc.
- Prospective Associations between Maternal Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection and Child Adjustment: Mediation by Insensitive Parenting
Tamar Y. Khafi
Jessica L. Borelli
Tuppett M. Yates
- Springer US