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14-02-2020 | ORIGINAL PAPER | Uitgave 5/2020

Mindfulness 5/2020

Promotion of Well-Being by Raising the Awareness on the Interdependent Nature of All Matters: Development and Validation of the Interconnectedness Scale

Mindfulness > Uitgave 5/2020
Ben C. L. Yu, Winnie W. S. Mak, Floria H. N. Chio
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The present study aimed to develop and validate the Interconnectedness Scale and examined the relationship of interconnectedness with various indicators of well-being, mindfulness, and nonattachment. It also aimed to examine the incremental value of interconnectedness in accounting for well-being above and beyond the effects of mindfulness and nonattachment.


Three studies were conducted to achieve the study objectives. In study 1, principal component analysis (PCA; n = 325) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA; n = 581) were employed to establish the factor structure of the Interconnectedness Scale. Study 2 (n = 194) established the convergent validity for the scale by examining the correlations between interconnectedness and variables related to (a) individual well-being, (b) psychological distress, (c) social justice ideologies, and (d) secularized Buddhist-derived concepts. Study 3 (n = 176) investigated the relationship between interconnectedness, nonattachment, and mindfulness. Their relationships with various indicators of well-being were also examined.


Study 1 found a three-factor structure that was confirmed by bi-factor analysis. Study 2 showed that interconnectedness was significantly associated with (a) peace of mind, mental well-being, and social connectedness (rs = 0.29 to 0.41, ps < 0.01); (b) civic engagement, egalitarianism and humanitarianism, and universalism (rs = 0.45 to 0.49, ps < 0.01); (c) perceived stress, anxiety, and depression (rs = − 0.26 to − 0.32, ps < 0.01); and (d) compassion, mindfulness, nonattachment, and self-transcendence (rs = 0.46 to 0.52, ps < 0.01). Study 3 showed that nonattachment was a significant mediator for both mindfulness and interconnectedness on various indicators of well-being. Interconnectedness also had significant incremental value over mindfulness and nonattachment mainly on social justice ideologies.


Interconnectedness is a distinct Buddhist-derived concept that can further explain well-being and social justice ideologies in addition to mindfulness and nonattachment.

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