Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 9/2017

06-05-2017 | Original Paper

Processes of Belonging for Citizen-Children of Undocumented Mexican Immigrants

Auteurs: Luis H. Zayas, Lauren E. Gulbas

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 9/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

In this article, we focus on the developmental contexts of middle childhood and early adolescence to explore the lives of citizen-children living with undocumented Mexican parents. We draw on the concept of belonging to highlight the distinct situation of citizen-children and the ways in which they come to understand their place in a world. To capture the experiences of citizen-children born to undocumented Mexican immigrant parents and their sense of belonging to place and community, we conducted in-depth interviews with 83 citizen-children in late childhood and early adolescence in three groups. One group of citizen-children lived in Mexico after their parents’ deportation. Another group remained in the U.S. after parents were detained or deported. The third group did not have a parent in deportation proceedings. Qualitative analyses of children’s recorded interviews revealed their experiences of discovery of parents’ undocumented status; political, social and material exclusion; and rupture of family ties. Children were keenly aware that birthright citizenship afforded them numerous privileges unavailable to their parents, but that it did not extend to the very privilege, they valued most: an intact family. The loss of parents through detention or deportation forced some children to consider existential questions about who they were and where they belonged, sometimes pitting family members against one another. Our findings suggest that belonging is intimately tied to broader forces of legal persecution that go beyond individualized notions of illegality and have deep, possibly lasting psychological effects.
Literatuur
go back to reference Abrego, L. J., & Gonzales, R. G. (2010). Blocked paths, uncertain futures: The postsecondary education and labor market prospects of undocumented Latino youth. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 15(1–2), 144–157. CrossRef Abrego, L. J., & Gonzales, R. G. (2010). Blocked paths, uncertain futures: The postsecondary education and labor market prospects of undocumented Latino youth. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 15(1–2), 144–157. CrossRef
go back to reference Allen, B., Cisneros, E. M., & Tellez, A. (2013). The children left behind: The impact of parental deportation on mental health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1–7. doi: 10.​1007/​s10826-013-9848-5. Allen, B., Cisneros, E. M., & Tellez, A. (2013). The children left behind: The impact of parental deportation on mental health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1–7. doi: 10.​1007/​s10826-013-9848-5.
go back to reference Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Melbourne, Australia: George Allen and Unwin. Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Melbourne, Australia: George Allen and Unwin.
go back to reference Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497. CrossRefPubMed Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bhabha, J. (2009). The ‘mere fortuity’ of birth? Children, mothers, borders, and the meaning of citizenship. In S. Benhabib, J. Resncik (Eds.), Migration and mobilities: Citizenship, borders, and gender (pp. 187–227). New York, NY: New York University Press. Bhabha, J. (2009). The ‘mere fortuity’ of birth? Children, mothers, borders, and the meaning of citizenship. In S. Benhabib, J. Resncik (Eds.), Migration and mobilities: Citizenship, borders, and gender (pp. 187–227). New York, NY: New York University Press.
go back to reference Bhabha, J. (2014). Child migration and human rights in a global age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. CrossRef Bhabha, J. (2014). Child migration and human rights in a global age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Boehm, D. A. (2008). “For My Children:” Constructing family and navigating the state in the US-Mexico transnation. Anthropological Quarterly, 81(4), 777–802. CrossRef Boehm, D. A. (2008). “For My Children:” Constructing family and navigating the state in the US-Mexico transnation. Anthropological Quarterly, 81(4), 777–802. CrossRef
go back to reference Boss, P. (1999). Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Boss, P. (1999). Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
go back to reference Boss, P. (2007). Ambiguous loss theory: Challenges for scholars and practitioners. Family Relations, 56, 105–111. CrossRef Boss, P. (2007). Ambiguous loss theory: Challenges for scholars and practitioners. Family Relations, 56, 105–111. CrossRef
go back to reference Brabeck, K., Lykes, M. B., & Hunter, C. (2014). The psychosocial impact of detention and deportation on U.S. migrant children and families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 496–505. doi: 10.​1037/​ort0000011. CrossRefPubMed Brabeck, K., Lykes, M. B., & Hunter, C. (2014). The psychosocial impact of detention and deportation on U.S. migrant children and families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 496–505. doi: 10.​1037/​ort0000011. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss, vol. 1. Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books. (Original work published 1969). Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss, vol. 1. Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books. (Original work published 1969).
go back to reference Chaudry A., Capps R., Pedroza J. M., Catañeda R. M., Santos, R. & Scott M. M. (2010). Facing our future: Children in the aftermath of immigration enforcement. The Urban Institute, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://​carnegie.​org/​fileadmin/​Media/​Publications/​facing_​our_​future.​pdf.​ Chaudry A., Capps R., Pedroza J. M., Catañeda R. M., Santos, R. & Scott M. M. (2010). Facing our future: Children in the aftermath of immigration enforcement. The Urban Institute, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://​carnegie.​org/​fileadmin/​Media/​Publications/​facing_​our_​future.​pdf.​
go back to reference Coutin, S. B. (2003). Cultural logics of belonging and movement: Transnationalism, naturalization, and U.S. immigration politics. American Ethnologist, 30(4), 508–526. CrossRef Coutin, S. B. (2003). Cultural logics of belonging and movement: Transnationalism, naturalization, and U.S. immigration politics. American Ethnologist, 30(4), 508–526. CrossRef
go back to reference Croucher, S. L. (2004). Globalization and belonging: The politics of identity in a changing world. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Croucher, S. L. (2004). Globalization and belonging: The politics of identity in a changing world. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
go back to reference Crowley, J. (1999). The politics of belonging: Some theoretical considerations. In A. Geddes, & A. Favell (Eds.), The politics of belonging: Migrants and minorities in contemporary Europe (pp. 15–41). Brookfield, VT: Ashgate. Crowley, J. (1999). The politics of belonging: Some theoretical considerations. In A. Geddes, & A. Favell (Eds.), The politics of belonging: Migrants and minorities in contemporary Europe (pp. 15–41). Brookfield, VT: Ashgate.
go back to reference De Genova, N. P. (2002). Migrant “illegality” and deportability in everyday life. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 419–447. CrossRef De Genova, N. P. (2002). Migrant “illegality” and deportability in everyday life. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 419–447. CrossRef
go back to reference Delva, J., Horner, P., Martinez, R., Sanders, L., Lopez, W. D., & Doering-White, J. (2013). Mental health problems of children of undocumented parents in the United States: A hidden crisis. Journal of Community Positive Practices, 13(3), 23–25. Delva, J., Horner, P., Martinez, R., Sanders, L., Lopez, W. D., & Doering-White, J. (2013). Mental health problems of children of undocumented parents in the United States: A hidden crisis. Journal of Community Positive Practices, 13(3), 23–25.
go back to reference Dreby, J. (2012). The burden of deportation on children in Mexican immigrant families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(4), 829–845. CrossRef Dreby, J. (2012). The burden of deportation on children in Mexican immigrant families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(4), 829–845. CrossRef
go back to reference Dreby, J. (2013). The ripple effects of deportation policies on Mexican women and their children. In M. W. Karraker (Ed.), The other people (pp. 73–89). London: Palgrave Macmillan US. Dreby, J. (2013). The ripple effects of deportation policies on Mexican women and their children. In M. W. Karraker (Ed.), The other people (pp. 73–89). London: Palgrave Macmillan US.
go back to reference Dreby, J. (2015a). US immigration policy and family separation: The consequences for children’s well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 132, 245–251. CrossRef Dreby, J. (2015a). US immigration policy and family separation: The consequences for children’s well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 132, 245–251. CrossRef
go back to reference Dreby, J. (2015b) Everyday illegal: When policies undermine immigrant families. Oakland, CA: Univ of California Press. Dreby, J. (2015b) Everyday illegal: When policies undermine immigrant families. Oakland, CA: Univ of California Press.
go back to reference Geertz, C. (1974). “From the native’s point of view”: On the nature of anthropological understanding. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 28, 26–45. Stable URL: http://​www.​jstor.​org/​stable/​3822971.​ CrossRef Geertz, C. (1974). “From the native’s point of view”: On the nature of anthropological understanding. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 28, 26–45. Stable URL: http://​www.​jstor.​org/​stable/​3822971.​ CrossRef
go back to reference Golash-Boza, T. (2016). The parallels between mass incarceration and mass deportation: An intersectional analysis of state repression. Journal of World-Systems Research, 22(2), 484–509. CrossRef Golash-Boza, T. (2016). The parallels between mass incarceration and mass deportation: An intersectional analysis of state repression. Journal of World-Systems Research, 22(2), 484–509. CrossRef
go back to reference Gonzales, R. G., & Chavez, L. R. (2012). Awakening to a nightmare. Current Anthropology, 53(3), 255–281. CrossRef Gonzales, R. G., & Chavez, L. R. (2012). Awakening to a nightmare. Current Anthropology, 53(3), 255–281. CrossRef
go back to reference Gonzales, R. G., Suárez-Orozco, C., & Dedios-Sanguineti, M. C. (2013). No place to belong: Contextualizing concepts of mental health among undocumented immigrant youth in the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(8), 1174–1199. CrossRef Gonzales, R. G., Suárez-Orozco, C., & Dedios-Sanguineti, M. C. (2013). No place to belong: Contextualizing concepts of mental health among undocumented immigrant youth in the United States. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(8), 1174–1199. CrossRef
go back to reference Good, B. J., & Good, M. D. (1982). Towards a meaning-centered analysis of popular illness categories: “Fright illness” and “heart distress” in Iran. In A. J. Marsella, & G. M. White (Eds.), Cultural conceptions of mental health and therapy (pp. 141–166). Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. CrossRef Good, B. J., & Good, M. D. (1982). Towards a meaning-centered analysis of popular illness categories: “Fright illness” and “heart distress” in Iran. In A. J. Marsella, & G. M. White (Eds.), Cultural conceptions of mental health and therapy (pp. 141–166). Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. CrossRef
go back to reference Guest, G., MacQueen, L. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012). Applied thematic analysis. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. CrossRef Guest, G., MacQueen, L. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012). Applied thematic analysis. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. CrossRef
go back to reference Gulbas, L. E., Zayas, L. H., Yoon, H., Szlyk, H., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Natera, G. (2016). A mixed-method study exploring depression in US citizen-children in Mexican immigrant families. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42(2), 220–230. Gulbas, L. E., Zayas, L. H., Yoon, H., Szlyk, H., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Natera, G. (2016). A mixed-method study exploring depression in US citizen-children in Mexican immigrant families. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42(2), 220–230.
go back to reference Heidbrink, L. (2014). Migrant youth, transnational families, and the state: Care and contested interests. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. CrossRef Heidbrink, L. (2014). Migrant youth, transnational families, and the state: Care and contested interests. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Khouri, L. Z. (2016). On belonging: The American adolescent of Arab descent. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(8), 818–826. CrossRefPubMed Khouri, L. Z. (2016). On belonging: The American adolescent of Arab descent. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(8), 818–826. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kılıç, Z., & Menjívar, C. (2013). Fluid adaptation of contested citizenship: Second-generation migrant Turks in Germany and the United States. Social Identities, 19(2), 204–220. CrossRef Kılıç, Z., & Menjívar, C. (2013). Fluid adaptation of contested citizenship: Second-generation migrant Turks in Germany and the United States. Social Identities, 19(2), 204–220. CrossRef
go back to reference Knafl, K. A., & Ayres, L. (1996). Managing large qualitative data sets in family research. Journal of Family Nursing, 2(4), 350–364. CrossRef Knafl, K. A., & Ayres, L. (1996). Managing large qualitative data sets in family research. Journal of Family Nursing, 2(4), 350–364. CrossRef
go back to reference MacQueen, K. M., McLellan, E., Kay, K., & Milstein, B. (1998). Codebook development for team-based qualitative analysis. Cultural Anthropology Methods, 10(2), 31–36. MacQueen, K. M., McLellan, E., Kay, K., & Milstein, B. (1998). Codebook development for team-based qualitative analysis. Cultural Anthropology Methods, 10(2), 31–36.
go back to reference Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded source book. (2nd edn.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded source book. (2nd edn.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Ochs, E., & Capps, L. (1996). Narrating the self. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 19–43. CrossRef Ochs, E., & Capps, L. (1996). Narrating the self. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 19–43. CrossRef
go back to reference Oyserman, D. (2001). Self-concept and identity. In A. Tesser, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual process (pp. 499–517). Oxford: Blackwell. Oyserman, D. (2001). Self-concept and identity. In A. Tesser, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual process (pp. 499–517). Oxford: Blackwell.
go back to reference Perreira, K. M., & Ornelas, I. J. (2011). The physical and psychological well-being of immigrant children. The Future of Children, 21(1), 195–218. CrossRefPubMed Perreira, K. M., & Ornelas, I. J. (2011). The physical and psychological well-being of immigrant children. The Future of Children, 21(1), 195–218. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Plascencia, L. F. (2012). Disenchanting citizenship: Mexican migrants and the boundaries of belonging. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Plascencia, L. F. (2012). Disenchanting citizenship: Mexican migrants and the boundaries of belonging. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
go back to reference Quesada, J., Hart, L. K., & Bourgois, P. (2011). Structural vulnerability and health: Latino migrant laborers in the United States. Medical Anthropology, 30(4), 339–362. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Quesada, J., Hart, L. K., & Bourgois, P. (2011). Structural vulnerability and health: Latino migrant laborers in the United States. Medical Anthropology, 30(4), 339–362. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Rosaldo, R., & Flores, W. V. (1997). Identity, conflict, and evolving Latino communities: Cultural citizenship in San Jose, California. In W. V. Flores, & R. Benmayor (Eds.), Latino cultural citizenship: Claiming identity, space, and rights (pp. 57–96). Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Rosaldo, R., & Flores, W. V. (1997). Identity, conflict, and evolving Latino communities: Cultural citizenship in San Jose, California. In W. V. Flores, & R. Benmayor (Eds.), Latino cultural citizenship: Claiming identity, space, and rights (pp. 57–96). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
go back to reference Scarf, D., Moradi, S., McGaw, K., Hewitt, J., Hayhurst, J. G., Boyes, M., Ruffman, T., & Hunter, J. A. (2016). Somewhere I belong: Long‐term increases in adolescents’ resilience are predicted by perceived belonging to the in-group. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55(3), 588–599. CrossRefPubMed Scarf, D., Moradi, S., McGaw, K., Hewitt, J., Hayhurst, J. G., Boyes, M., Ruffman, T., & Hunter, J. A. (2016). Somewhere I belong: Long‐term increases in adolescents’ resilience are predicted by perceived belonging to the in-group. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55(3), 588–599. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Smith, J., & Firth, J. (2011). Qualitative data analysis: The framework approach. Nurse Researcher, 18(2), 52–62. CrossRefPubMed Smith, J., & Firth, J. (2011). Qualitative data analysis: The framework approach. Nurse Researcher, 18(2), 52–62. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
go back to reference Suárez-Orozco, C. (2000). Identities under siege: Immigration stress and social mirroring among the children of immigrants. In A. C. G. M. Robben, & M. M. Suárez-Orozco (Eds.), Cultures under siege: Collective violence and trauma (pp. 194–226). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Suárez-Orozco, C. (2000). Identities under siege: Immigration stress and social mirroring among the children of immigrants. In A. C. G. M. Robben, & M. M. Suárez-Orozco (Eds.), Cultures under siege: Collective violence and trauma (pp. 194–226). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Suárez-Orozco, C., Yoshikawa, H., Teranishi, R. T., & Suárez-Orozco, M. M. (2011). Growing up in the shadows: The developmental implications of unauthorized status. Harvard Educational Review, 81(3), 438–473. CrossRef Suárez-Orozco, C., Yoshikawa, H., Teranishi, R. T., & Suárez-Orozco, M. M. (2011). Growing up in the shadows: The developmental implications of unauthorized status. Harvard Educational Review, 81(3), 438–473. CrossRef
go back to reference Sullivan, M. M., & Rehm, R. (2005). Mental health of undocumented Mexican immigrants: A review of the literature. Advances in Nursing Science, 28(3), 240–251. CrossRefPubMed Sullivan, M. M., & Rehm, R. (2005). Mental health of undocumented Mexican immigrants: A review of the literature. Advances in Nursing Science, 28(3), 240–251. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wimpenny, P., & Guss, J. (2000). Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: Is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(6), 1485–1492. CrossRefPubMed Wimpenny, P., & Guss, J. (2000). Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: Is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(6), 1485–1492. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Yamane, D. (2000). Narrative and religious experience. Sociology of Religion, 61(2), 171–189. CrossRef Yamane, D. (2000). Narrative and religious experience. Sociology of Religion, 61(2), 171–189. CrossRef
go back to reference Yoshikawa, H., & Kalil, A. (2011). The effects of parental undocumented status on the developmental contexts of young children in immigrant families. Child Development Perspectives, 5(4), 291–297. CrossRef Yoshikawa, H., & Kalil, A. (2011). The effects of parental undocumented status on the developmental contexts of young children in immigrant families. Child Development Perspectives, 5(4), 291–297. CrossRef
go back to reference Yoshikawa, H., Suárez-Orozco, C., & Gonzales, R. G. (2016). Unauthorized status and youth development in the United States: Consensus statement of the society for research on adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence. doi: 10.​1111/​jora.​12272. Yoshikawa, H., Suárez-Orozco, C., & Gonzales, R. G. (2016). Unauthorized status and youth development in the United States: Consensus statement of the society for research on adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence. doi: 10.​1111/​jora.​12272.
go back to reference Yuval-Davis, N. (2006). Belonging and the politics of belonging. Patterns of Prejudice, 40(3), 197–214. CrossRef Yuval-Davis, N. (2006). Belonging and the politics of belonging. Patterns of Prejudice, 40(3), 197–214. CrossRef
go back to reference Yuval-Davis, N. (2011). The politics of belonging: Intersectional contestations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Yuval-Davis, N. (2011). The politics of belonging: Intersectional contestations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Zayas, L. H. (2015). Forgotten citizens: Deportation, children, and the making of American exiles and orphans. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Zayas, L. H. (2015). Forgotten citizens: Deportation, children, and the making of American exiles and orphans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
Processes of Belonging for Citizen-Children of Undocumented Mexican Immigrants
Auteurs
Luis H. Zayas
Lauren E. Gulbas
Publicatiedatum
06-05-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 9/2017
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0755-z

Andere artikelen Uitgave 9/2017

Journal of Child and Family Studies 9/2017 Naar de uitgave