Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2/2007

01-02-2007 | Original Paper

Priming the Meaning of Homographs in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

Auteurs: Suzanne Hala, Penny M. Pexman, Melanie Glenwright

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 2/2007

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Two explanations for deficits underlying autism were tested: weak central coherence (WCC) and executive dysfunction. Consistent with WCC, Happé (British Journal of Developmental Psychology 15 (1997) 1) found that children with autism failed to use sentence context in pronouncing homographs. In an alternate approach, we investigated whether children with autism can use meanings of related word primes. We presented children with autism and controls with primes for homographs, semantically related, and unrelated targets. Children with autism used primes to correctly pronounce homographs upon first presentation but showed difficulty inhibiting prior responses upon later presentation of the homographs with different primes. Children with autism also showed semantic priming effects. We conclude that children with autism do not show an absolute deficit in ability to use contextual information.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.
go back to reference Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67, 1816–1835. PubMedCrossRef Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67, 1816–1835. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Borowsky, R., & Besner, D. (1993). Visual word recognition: A multistage activation model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19, 813–840. CrossRef Borowsky, R., & Besner, D. (1993). Visual word recognition: A multistage activation model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19, 813–840. CrossRef
go back to reference Brian, J. A., & Bryson, S. E. (1996). Disembedding performance and recognition memory in autism/PDD. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 865–872. CrossRef Brian, J. A., & Bryson, S. E. (1996). Disembedding performance and recognition memory in autism/PDD. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 865–872. CrossRef
go back to reference Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Folk, J. R., & Morris, R. K. (1995). Multiple lexical codes in reading: Evidence from eye movements, naming time, and oral reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 1412–1429. CrossRef Folk, J. R., & Morris, R. K. (1995). Multiple lexical codes in reading: Evidence from eye movements, naming time, and oral reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 1412–1429. CrossRef
go back to reference Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
go back to reference Frith, U. (2003). Autism: Explaining the enigma (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell. Frith, U. (2003). Autism: Explaining the enigma (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
go back to reference Frith, U., & Snowling, M. (1983). Reading for meaning and reading for sound in autistic and dyslexic children. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1, 329–342. Frith, U., & Snowling, M. (1983). Reading for meaning and reading for sound in autistic and dyslexic children. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1, 329–342.
go back to reference Gottlob, L. R., Goldinger, S. D., Stone, G. O., & Van Orden, G. C. (1999). Reading homographs: Orthographic, phonologic, and semantic dynamics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 25, 561–574. CrossRef Gottlob, L. R., Goldinger, S. D., Stone, G. O., & Van Orden, G. C. (1999). Reading homographs: Orthographic, phonologic, and semantic dynamics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 25, 561–574. CrossRef
go back to reference Happé F. (1994). Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Happé F. (1994). Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
go back to reference Happé, F. (1996). Studying weak central coherence at low levels: Children with autism do not succumb to visual illusions. A research note. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 873–877. CrossRef Happé, F. (1996). Studying weak central coherence at low levels: Children with autism do not succumb to visual illusions. A research note. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 873–877. CrossRef
go back to reference Happé, F. (1997). Central coherence and theory of mind in autism: Reading homographs in context. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1–12. Happé, F. (1997). Central coherence and theory of mind in autism: Reading homographs in context. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1–12.
go back to reference Happé, F. (1999a). Understanding assets and deficits in autism: Why success is more interesting than failure. Psychologist, 12, 540–546. Happé, F. (1999a). Understanding assets and deficits in autism: Why success is more interesting than failure. Psychologist, 12, 540–546.
go back to reference Happé, F. (1999b). Autism: Cognitive deficit or cognitive style? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 216–221. CrossRef Happé, F. (1999b). Autism: Cognitive deficit or cognitive style? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 216–221. CrossRef
go back to reference Hermelin, B., & O’Connor, N. (1967). Remembering of words by psychotic and subnormal children. British Journal of Psychology, 58, 213–218. PubMed Hermelin, B., & O’Connor, N. (1967). Remembering of words by psychotic and subnormal children. British Journal of Psychology, 58, 213–218. PubMed
go back to reference Hughes, C., & Russell, J. (1993). Autistic children’s difficulty with mental disengagement from an object: Its implications for theories of autism. Developmental Psychology, 29, 498–510. CrossRef Hughes, C., & Russell, J. (1993). Autistic children’s difficulty with mental disengagement from an object: Its implications for theories of autism. Developmental Psychology, 29, 498–510. CrossRef
go back to reference Hughes, C., Russell, J., & Robbins, T. W. (1994). Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia, 32, 477–492. PubMedCrossRef Hughes, C., Russell, J., & Robbins, T. W. (1994). Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia, 32, 477–492. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1997) Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the Embedded Figures Test? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 38, 527–534. CrossRef Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1997) Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the Embedded Figures Test? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 38, 527–534. CrossRef
go back to reference Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). A test of central coherence theory: Linguistic processing in high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome: Is local coherence impaired? Cognition, 71, 149–185. PubMedCrossRef Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). A test of central coherence theory: Linguistic processing in high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome: Is local coherence impaired? Cognition, 71, 149–185. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kellas, G., Paul, S. T., Martin, M., Simpson, G. B. (1991). Contextual feature activation and meaning access. In G. Simpson (Ed.), Understanding word and sentence (pp. 47–71). North-Holland, NJ: Elsevier Science Publishers. Kellas, G., Paul, S. T., Martin, M., Simpson, G. B. (1991). Contextual feature activation and meaning access. In G. Simpson (Ed.), Understanding word and sentence (pp. 47–71). North-Holland, NJ: Elsevier Science Publishers.
go back to reference Koczat, D. L., Rogers, S. J., Pennington, B. F., & Ross, R. G. (2002). Eye movement abnormality suggestive of a spatial working memory deficit is present in parents of autistic probands. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 32, 513–518. CrossRef Koczat, D. L., Rogers, S. J., Pennington, B. F., & Ross, R. G. (2002). Eye movement abnormality suggestive of a spatial working memory deficit is present in parents of autistic probands. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 32, 513–518. CrossRef
go back to reference Lopez, B., & Leekam, S. R. (2003). Do children with autism fail to process information in context? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 44, 285–300. CrossRef Lopez, B., & Leekam, S. R. (2003). Do children with autism fail to process information in context? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 44, 285–300. CrossRef
go back to reference Lupker, S. J. (1984). Semantic priming without association: A second look. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 23, 709–733. CrossRef Lupker, S. J. (1984). Semantic priming without association: A second look. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 23, 709–733. CrossRef
go back to reference Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., & Siegel, D. J. (1995). Speech and language in high-functioning autistic individuals. Neuropsychology, 9, 255–261. CrossRef Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., & Siegel, D. J. (1995). Speech and language in high-functioning autistic individuals. Neuropsychology, 9, 255–261. CrossRef
go back to reference Nation, K., & Snowling, M. (1998). Semantic processing and the development of word-recognition skills: Evidence from children with reading comprehension difficulties. Journal of Memory & Language, 39, 85–101. CrossRef Nation, K., & Snowling, M. (1998). Semantic processing and the development of word-recognition skills: Evidence from children with reading comprehension difficulties. Journal of Memory & Language, 39, 85–101. CrossRef
go back to reference O’Riordan, M., & Plaisted, K. (2001). Enhanced discrimination in autism. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 54A, 961–979. CrossRef O’Riordan, M., & Plaisted, K. (2001). Enhanced discrimination in autism. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 54A, 961–979. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S. (1997). Components of executive function in autism and other disorders. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp. 179–211). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ozonoff, S. (1997). Components of executive function in autism and other disorders. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp. 179–211). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., Cook, I., Coon, H., Dawson, G., Joseph, R. M., Klin, A., McMahon, W. M., Minshew, N., Munson, J. A., Pennington, B. F., Rogers, S. J., Spence, M. A., Tager-Flusberg, H., Volkmar, F. R., & Wrathall, D. (2004). Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests sensitive to frontal lobe function in people with autistic disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 34, 139–150. CrossRef Ozonoff, S., Cook, I., Coon, H., Dawson, G., Joseph, R. M., Klin, A., McMahon, W. M., Minshew, N., Munson, J. A., Pennington, B. F., Rogers, S. J., Spence, M. A., Tager-Flusberg, H., Volkmar, F. R., & Wrathall, D. (2004). Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests sensitive to frontal lobe function in people with autistic disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 34, 139–150. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., & Jensen, J. (1999). Brief report: Specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 29, 171–177. CrossRef Ozonoff, S., & Jensen, J. (1999). Brief report: Specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 29, 171–177. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., & McEvoy, R. E. (1994). A longitudinal study of executive function and theory of mind development in autism. Development & Psychopathology, 6, 415–431. CrossRef Ozonoff, S., & McEvoy, R. E. (1994). A longitudinal study of executive function and theory of mind development in autism. Development & Psychopathology, 6, 415–431. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 32, 1081–1105. CrossRef Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 32, 1081–1105. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (2001). Further evidence of intact working memory in autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31, 257–263. CrossRef Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (2001). Further evidence of intact working memory in autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31, 257–263. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., Strayer, D. L., McMahon, W. M., & Filloux, F. (1994). Executive function abilities in autism and Tourette syndrome: An information processing approach. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 1015–1032. CrossRef Ozonoff, S., Strayer, D. L., McMahon, W. M., & Filloux, F. (1994). Executive function abilities in autism and Tourette syndrome: An information processing approach. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 1015–1032. CrossRef
go back to reference Pennington, B. F., Bennetto, L., McAleer, O., & Roberts, R. J. Jr. (1996). In G. R. Lyon, & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, memory and executive function (pp. 327–348). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Pennington, B. F., Bennetto, L., McAleer, O., & Roberts, R. J. Jr. (1996). In G. R. Lyon, & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, memory and executive function (pp. 327–348). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
go back to reference Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 51–87. Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 51–87.
go back to reference Plaisted, J., Swettenham, J., & Rees, L. (1999). Children with autism show local precedence in a divided attention task and global precedence in a selective attention task. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 40, 733–742. CrossRef Plaisted, J., Swettenham, J., & Rees, L. (1999). Children with autism show local precedence in a divided attention task and global precedence in a selective attention task. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 40, 733–742. CrossRef
go back to reference Plaut, D. C., & Booth, J. R. (2000). Individual and developmental differences in semantic priming: Empirical and computational support for a single-mechanism account of lexical processing. Psychological Review, 107, 786–823. PubMedCrossRef Plaut, D. C., & Booth, J. R. (2000). Individual and developmental differences in semantic priming: Empirical and computational support for a single-mechanism account of lexical processing. Psychological Review, 107, 786–823. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pring, L., & Hermelin, B. (1993). Bottle, tulip and wineglass: Semantic and structural picture processing by savant artists. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 34, 1365–1385. CrossRef Pring, L., & Hermelin, B. (1993). Bottle, tulip and wineglass: Semantic and structural picture processing by savant artists. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 34, 1365–1385. CrossRef
go back to reference Prior, M., & Hoffman, W. (1990). Brief report: Neuropsychological testing of autistic children through an exploration with frontal lobe tests. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 20, 581–590. CrossRef Prior, M., & Hoffman, W. (1990). Brief report: Neuropsychological testing of autistic children through an exploration with frontal lobe tests. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 20, 581–590. CrossRef
go back to reference Pugh, K. R., Rexer, K., & Katz, L. (1994). Evidence of flexible coding in visual word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 20, 807–825. CrossRef Pugh, K. R., Rexer, K., & Katz, L. (1994). Evidence of flexible coding in visual word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 20, 807–825. CrossRef
go back to reference Reed, T. (2002). Visual perspective taking as a measure of working memory in participants with autism. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 14, 63–76. CrossRef Reed, T. (2002). Visual perspective taking as a measure of working memory in participants with autism. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 14, 63–76. CrossRef
go back to reference Roberts, R. J. Jr., & Pennington, B. F. (1996). An interactive framework for examining prefrontal cognitive processes. Developmental Neuropsychology, 12, 105–126. Roberts, R. J. Jr., & Pennington, B. F. (1996). An interactive framework for examining prefrontal cognitive processes. Developmental Neuropsychology, 12, 105–126.
go back to reference Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (1999). Are individuals with autism and Asperger’s syndrome susceptible to visual illusions? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 40, 1283–1293. CrossRef Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (1999). Are individuals with autism and Asperger’s syndrome susceptible to visual illusions? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 40, 1283–1293. CrossRef
go back to reference Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (2001). Susceptibility to illusions and performance on visuospatial tasks in individuals with autism. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 42, 539–549. CrossRef Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (2001). Susceptibility to illusions and performance on visuospatial tasks in individuals with autism. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 42, 539–549. CrossRef
go back to reference Russell, J. (1997). How executive disorders can bring about an inadequate ‘theory of mind’. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp.256–304). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Russell, J. (1997). How executive disorders can bring about an inadequate ‘theory of mind’. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp.256–304). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Russell, J. (2002). Cognitive theories of autism. In J. Harrison, & A. Owen (Eds.), Cognitive deficits in brain disorders (pp. 295–323). London: Martin Dunez. Russell, J. (2002). Cognitive theories of autism. In J. Harrison, & A. Owen (Eds.), Cognitive deficits in brain disorders (pp. 295–323). London: Martin Dunez.
go back to reference Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). The ‘windows task’ as a measure of strategic deception in pre-schoolers and autistic participants. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 331–349. Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). The ‘windows task’ as a measure of strategic deception in pre-schoolers and autistic participants. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 331–349.
go back to reference Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1983). An islet of ability in autistic children: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 24, 613–620. CrossRef Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1983). An islet of ability in autistic children: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 24, 613–620. CrossRef
go back to reference Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 8, 1351–1364. CrossRef Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 8, 1351–1364. CrossRef
go back to reference Simpson, G. B., & Lorsbach, T. C. (1983). The development of automatic and conscious components of contextual facilitation. Child Development, 54, 760–772. CrossRef Simpson, G. B., & Lorsbach, T. C. (1983). The development of automatic and conscious components of contextual facilitation. Child Development, 54, 760–772. CrossRef
go back to reference Simpson, G. B., & Lorsbach, T. C. (1987). Automatic and conscious context effects in average and advanced readers. Journal of Research in Reading, 10, 102–112. CrossRef Simpson, G. B., & Lorsbach, T. C. (1987). Automatic and conscious context effects in average and advanced readers. Journal of Research in Reading, 10, 102–112. CrossRef
go back to reference Snowling, M., & Frith, U. (1986). Comprehension in “hyperlexic” readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 42, 392–415. PubMedCrossRef Snowling, M., & Frith, U. (1986). Comprehension in “hyperlexic” readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 42, 392–415. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tager-Flusberg, H. (1991). Semantic processing in the free recall of autistic children: Further evidence for a cognitive deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 417–430. Tager-Flusberg, H. (1991). Semantic processing in the free recall of autistic children: Further evidence for a cognitive deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 417–430.
go back to reference Teunisse, J., & Gelder, B. (2001). Impaired categorical perception of facial expressions in high-functioning adolescents with autism. Child Neuropsychology, 7, 1–14. PubMed Teunisse, J., & Gelder, B. (2001). Impaired categorical perception of facial expressions in high-functioning adolescents with autism. Child Neuropsychology, 7, 1–14. PubMed
go back to reference Welsh, M. C., Pennington, B. F., & Groisser, D. B. (1991). A normative-developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 131–149. CrossRef Welsh, M. C., Pennington, B. F., & Groisser, D. B. (1991). A normative-developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 131–149. CrossRef
go back to reference Woodcock, R. W. (1997). The woodcock reading diagnostic battery. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Company. Woodcock, R. W. (1997). The woodcock reading diagnostic battery. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Company.
go back to reference Zelazo, P. D., Burack, J. A., Boseovski, J., Jacques, S., & Frye, D. (2001). A cognitive complexity and control framework for the study of autism. In J. A. Burack, T. Charman, N, Yimira, & P. R. Zelazo (Eds.), The development of autism: perspectives from theory and research (pp. 195–217). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Zelazo, P. D., Burack, J. A., Boseovski, J., Jacques, S., & Frye, D. (2001). A cognitive complexity and control framework for the study of autism. In J. A. Burack, T. Charman, N, Yimira, & P. R. Zelazo (Eds.), The development of autism: perspectives from theory and research (pp. 195–217). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Zelazo, P. D., Jacques, S., Burack, J. A., & Frye, D. (2002). The relation between theory of mind and rule use: Evidence from persons with autism-spectrum disorders. Infant and Child Development, 11, 171–195. CrossRef Zelazo, P. D., Jacques, S., Burack, J. A., & Frye, D. (2002). The relation between theory of mind and rule use: Evidence from persons with autism-spectrum disorders. Infant and Child Development, 11, 171–195. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Priming the Meaning of Homographs in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism
Auteurs
Suzanne Hala
Penny M. Pexman
Melanie Glenwright
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2007
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 2/2007
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0162-6