Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development 6/2021

24-10-2020 | Original Article

Primary and Secondary Variants of Psychopathic Traits in at-Risk Youth: Links with Maltreatment, Aggression, and Empathy

Auteurs: Stacy Metcalf, Kelli L. Dickerson, Helen M. Milojevich, Jodi A. Quas

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development | Uitgave 6/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The current study examined whether two variants of psychopathic traits (PT) were identifiable in high-risk youth who had not yet been identified as antisocial, some of whom had documented histories of maltreatment (N = 167, Mage = 14.84), and then whether the variants differed in levels of aggression and empathy. High-PT youth with low anxiety and trauma (i.e., primary variant PT) and high anxiety and trauma (i.e., secondary variant PT) were differentiated. The secondary variant group was comprised largely of youth with documented histories of maltreatment. This group of youth also reported higher levels of proactive and reactive aggression than did the primary variant youth and low-PT youth. All youth reported similar levels of affective empathy and only small differences in cognitive empathy emerged: Primary variant youth reported lower cognitive empathy than low-PT youth. Findings support generalization of two variant groups of youth with psychopathic traits to diverse, high-risk samples not already identified as antisocial and have important implications for policy and practice.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Kimonis ER, Fanti KA, Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous X, Mertan B, Goulter N, Katsimicha E (2016) Can callous-unemotional traits be reliably measured in preschoolers? J Abnorm Child Psychol 44:625–638 PubMedCrossRef Kimonis ER, Fanti KA, Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous X, Mertan B, Goulter N, Katsimicha E (2016) Can callous-unemotional traits be reliably measured in preschoolers? J Abnorm Child Psychol 44:625–638 PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Lynam DR, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Stouthamer-Loeber LR (2007) Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy. J Abnorm Psychol 116:155–165 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lynam DR, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Stouthamer-Loeber LR (2007) Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy. J Abnorm Psychol 116:155–165 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
3.
go back to reference Salekin RT (2017) Research review: what do we know about psychopathic traits in children? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 58:1180–1200 PubMedCrossRef Salekin RT (2017) Research review: what do we know about psychopathic traits in children? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 58:1180–1200 PubMedCrossRef
4.
go back to reference Byrd AL, Hawes SW, Loeber R, Pardini DA (2018) Interpersonal callousness from childhood to adolescence: developmental trajectories and early risk factors. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 47:467–482 PubMedCrossRef Byrd AL, Hawes SW, Loeber R, Pardini DA (2018) Interpersonal callousness from childhood to adolescence: developmental trajectories and early risk factors. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 47:467–482 PubMedCrossRef
5.
go back to reference Enebrink P, Andershed H, Långström N (2005) Callous-unemotional traits are associated with clinical severity in referred boys with conduct problems. Nord J Psychiatr 59:431–440 CrossRef Enebrink P, Andershed H, Långström N (2005) Callous-unemotional traits are associated with clinical severity in referred boys with conduct problems. Nord J Psychiatr 59:431–440 CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Frick PJ, White SF (2008) Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 49:359–375 CrossRef Frick PJ, White SF (2008) Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 49:359–375 CrossRef
7.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub
8.
go back to reference Colins OF, Andershed H, Salekin RT, Fanti KA (2018) Comparing different Aapproaches for subtyping children with conduct problems: Callous-unemotional traits only versus the multidimensional psychopathy construct. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:6–15 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Colins OF, Andershed H, Salekin RT, Fanti KA (2018) Comparing different Aapproaches for subtyping children with conduct problems: Callous-unemotional traits only versus the multidimensional psychopathy construct. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:6–15 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Andershed H, Colins OF, Salekin RT, Lordos A, Kyranides MN, Fanti KA (2018) Callous-unemotional traits only versus the multidimensional psychopathy construct as predictors of various antisocial outcomes during early adolescence. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:16–25 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Andershed H, Colins OF, Salekin RT, Lordos A, Kyranides MN, Fanti KA (2018) Callous-unemotional traits only versus the multidimensional psychopathy construct as predictors of various antisocial outcomes during early adolescence. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:16–25 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Frogner L, Andershed A-K, Andershed H (2018) Psychopathic personality works better than CU traits for bredicting fearlessness and ADHD symptoms among children with conduct problems. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:26–39 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Frogner L, Andershed A-K, Andershed H (2018) Psychopathic personality works better than CU traits for bredicting fearlessness and ADHD symptoms among children with conduct problems. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:26–39 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
11.
go back to reference Fanti KA, Kyranides MN, Lordos A, Colins OF, Andershed H (2018) Unique and interactive associations of callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and grandiosity with child and adolescent conduct disorder symptoms. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:40–49 CrossRef Fanti KA, Kyranides MN, Lordos A, Colins OF, Andershed H (2018) Unique and interactive associations of callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity and grandiosity with child and adolescent conduct disorder symptoms. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:40–49 CrossRef
12.
go back to reference Karpman B (1941) On the need of separating psychopathy into two distinct clinical types: the symptomatic and the idiopathic. J Crim Psychopathol 112–137 Karpman B (1941) On the need of separating psychopathy into two distinct clinical types: the symptomatic and the idiopathic. J Crim Psychopathol 112–137
13.
go back to reference Hicks BM, Markon KE, Patrick CJ et al (2004) Identifying psychopathy subtypes on the basis of personality structure. Psychol Assess 16:276–288 PubMedCrossRef Hicks BM, Markon KE, Patrick CJ et al (2004) Identifying psychopathy subtypes on the basis of personality structure. Psychol Assess 16:276–288 PubMedCrossRef
14.
go back to reference Skeem JL, Poythress N, Edens JF, Lilienfeld SO, Cale EM (2003) Psychopathic personality or personalities? Exploring potential variants of psychopathy and their implications for risk assessment. Aggress Violent Behav 8:513–546 CrossRef Skeem JL, Poythress N, Edens JF, Lilienfeld SO, Cale EM (2003) Psychopathic personality or personalities? Exploring potential variants of psychopathy and their implications for risk assessment. Aggress Violent Behav 8:513–546 CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Fowles DC (1980) The three arousal model: Implications of gray’s two-factor learning theory for heart rate, electrodermal activity, and psychopathy. Psychophysiology 17:87–104 PubMedCrossRef Fowles DC (1980) The three arousal model: Implications of gray’s two-factor learning theory for heart rate, electrodermal activity, and psychopathy. Psychophysiology 17:87–104 PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Newman JP, MacCoon DG, Vaughn LJ, Sadeh N (2005) Validating a distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy with measures of Gray’s BIS and BAS constructs. J Abnorm Psychol 114:319–323 PubMedCrossRef Newman JP, MacCoon DG, Vaughn LJ, Sadeh N (2005) Validating a distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy with measures of Gray’s BIS and BAS constructs. J Abnorm Psychol 114:319–323 PubMedCrossRef
17.
go back to reference Kimonis ER, Fanti KA, Isoma Z, Donoghue K (2013) Maltreatment profiles among incarcerated boys with callous-unemotional traits. Child Maltreat 18:108–121 PubMedCrossRef Kimonis ER, Fanti KA, Isoma Z, Donoghue K (2013) Maltreatment profiles among incarcerated boys with callous-unemotional traits. Child Maltreat 18:108–121 PubMedCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Meehan AJ, Maughan B, Cecil CAM, Barker ED (2017) Interpersonal callousness and co-occurring anxiety: Developmental validity of an adolescent taxonomy. J Abnorm Psychol 126:225–236 PubMedCrossRef Meehan AJ, Maughan B, Cecil CAM, Barker ED (2017) Interpersonal callousness and co-occurring anxiety: Developmental validity of an adolescent taxonomy. J Abnorm Psychol 126:225–236 PubMedCrossRef
19.
go back to reference Kimonis ER, Frick PJ, Cauffman E, Goldweber A, Skeem JL (2012) Primary and secondary variants of juvenile psychopathy differ in emotional processing. Dev Psychopathol 24:1091–1103 PubMedCrossRef Kimonis ER, Frick PJ, Cauffman E, Goldweber A, Skeem JL (2012) Primary and secondary variants of juvenile psychopathy differ in emotional processing. Dev Psychopathol 24:1091–1103 PubMedCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Kahn RE, Frick PJ, Youngstrom EA, Youngstrom JK, Feeny NC, Findling RL (2013) Distinguishing primary and secondary variants of callous unemotional traits among adolescents in a clinic-referred sample. Psychol Assess 25:966–978 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kahn RE, Frick PJ, Youngstrom EA, Youngstrom JK, Feeny NC, Findling RL (2013) Distinguishing primary and secondary variants of callous unemotional traits among adolescents in a clinic-referred sample. Psychol Assess 25:966–978 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Kimonis ER, Skeem JL, Cauffman E, Dmitrieva J (2011) Are secondary variants of juvenile psychopathy more reactively violent and less psychosocially mature than primary variants? Law Hum Behav 35:381–391 PubMedCrossRef Kimonis ER, Skeem JL, Cauffman E, Dmitrieva J (2011) Are secondary variants of juvenile psychopathy more reactively violent and less psychosocially mature than primary variants? Law Hum Behav 35:381–391 PubMedCrossRef
22.
go back to reference Tatar JR, Cauffman E, Kimonis ER, Skeem JL (2012) Victimization history and posttraumatic stress: an analysis of psychopathy variants in male juvenile offenders. J Child Adolesc Trauma 5:102–113 CrossRef Tatar JR, Cauffman E, Kimonis ER, Skeem JL (2012) Victimization history and posttraumatic stress: an analysis of psychopathy variants in male juvenile offenders. J Child Adolesc Trauma 5:102–113 CrossRef
23.
go back to reference Docherty M, Boxer P, Huesmann LR et al (2016) Exploring primary and secondary variants of psychopathy in adolescents in detention and in the community. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 45:564–578 PubMedCrossRef Docherty M, Boxer P, Huesmann LR et al (2016) Exploring primary and secondary variants of psychopathy in adolescents in detention and in the community. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 45:564–578 PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Fanti KA, Demetriou CA, Kimonis ER (2013) Variants of callous-unemotional conduct problems in a community sample of adolescents. J Youth Adolesc 42:964–979 PubMedCrossRef Fanti KA, Demetriou CA, Kimonis ER (2013) Variants of callous-unemotional conduct problems in a community sample of adolescents. J Youth Adolesc 42:964–979 PubMedCrossRef
25.
go back to reference Polaschek DLL, Daly TE (2013) Treatment and psychopathy in forensic settings. Aggress Violent Behav 18:592–603 CrossRef Polaschek DLL, Daly TE (2013) Treatment and psychopathy in forensic settings. Aggress Violent Behav 18:592–603 CrossRef
26.
go back to reference Poythress NG, Edens JF, Skeem JL, Lilienfield SO, Douglas KS, Frick PJ et al (2010) Identifying subtypes among offenders with antisocial personality disorder: a cluster-analytic study. J Abnorm Psychol 119:389–400 PubMedCrossRef Poythress NG, Edens JF, Skeem JL, Lilienfield SO, Douglas KS, Frick PJ et al (2010) Identifying subtypes among offenders with antisocial personality disorder: a cluster-analytic study. J Abnorm Psychol 119:389–400 PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Ross SR, Moltó J, Poy R, Segarra P, Pastor MC, Montañés S (2007) Gray’s model and psychopathy: BIS but not BAS differentiates primary from secondary psychopathy in noninstitutionalized young adults. Pers Individ Dif 43:1644–1655 CrossRef Ross SR, Moltó J, Poy R, Segarra P, Pastor MC, Montañés S (2007) Gray’s model and psychopathy: BIS but not BAS differentiates primary from secondary psychopathy in noninstitutionalized young adults. Pers Individ Dif 43:1644–1655 CrossRef
28.
go back to reference Kimonis ER, Fanti KA, Goulter N, Hall J (2017) Affective startle potentiation differentiates primary and secondary variants of juvenile psychopathy. Dev Psychopathol 29:1149–1160 PubMedCrossRef Kimonis ER, Fanti KA, Goulter N, Hall J (2017) Affective startle potentiation differentiates primary and secondary variants of juvenile psychopathy. Dev Psychopathol 29:1149–1160 PubMedCrossRef
30.
go back to reference Hicks BM, Vaidyanathan U, Patrick CJ (2010) Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health. Personal Discord 1:38–57 CrossRef Hicks BM, Vaidyanathan U, Patrick CJ (2010) Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health. Personal Discord 1:38–57 CrossRef
31.
go back to reference Falkenbach D, Poythress N, Creevy C (2008) The exploration of subclinical psychopathic subtypes and the relationship with types of aggression. Pers Individ Dif 44:821–832 CrossRef Falkenbach D, Poythress N, Creevy C (2008) The exploration of subclinical psychopathic subtypes and the relationship with types of aggression. Pers Individ Dif 44:821–832 CrossRef
32.
go back to reference Ridder KA, Kosson DS (2018) Investigating the components of psychopathic traits in youth offenders. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:60–68 CrossRef Ridder KA, Kosson DS (2018) Investigating the components of psychopathic traits in youth offenders. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:60–68 CrossRef
33.
go back to reference Shaffer C, Gatner D, Gray AL, Douglas KS, Viljoen JL, Tweed R et al (2016) Incremental and predictive validity of the antisocial process screening device in a community sample of male and female ethnic minority and caucasian youth. J Abnorm Child Psychol 44:1599–1612 PubMedCrossRef Shaffer C, Gatner D, Gray AL, Douglas KS, Viljoen JL, Tweed R et al (2016) Incremental and predictive validity of the antisocial process screening device in a community sample of male and female ethnic minority and caucasian youth. J Abnorm Child Psychol 44:1599–1612 PubMedCrossRef
34.
go back to reference Frick PJ (2009) Extending the construct of psychopathy to youth: Implications for understanding, diagnosing, and treating antisocial children and adolescents. Can J Psychiatry 54:803–812 PubMedCrossRef Frick PJ (2009) Extending the construct of psychopathy to youth: Implications for understanding, diagnosing, and treating antisocial children and adolescents. Can J Psychiatry 54:803–812 PubMedCrossRef
35.
go back to reference Halberstadt AG, Denham SA, Dunsmore JC (2001) Affective social competence. Soc Dev 10:79–119 CrossRef Halberstadt AG, Denham SA, Dunsmore JC (2001) Affective social competence. Soc Dev 10:79–119 CrossRef
36.
go back to reference Gillen CTA, Lee Z, Salekin KL, Iselin AR, Harrison NA, Clark AP et al (2018) Psychopathic traits in adolescence: the importance of examining components in face processing, voice processing, and emotional skill. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:50–59 CrossRef Gillen CTA, Lee Z, Salekin KL, Iselin AR, Harrison NA, Clark AP et al (2018) Psychopathic traits in adolescence: the importance of examining components in face processing, voice processing, and emotional skill. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 40:50–59 CrossRef
37.
go back to reference Eisenberg N, Eggum ND (2009) Empathic responding: Sympathy and personal distress. In: Decety J, Ickes W (eds) The social neuroscience of empathy. The MIT Press, pp 71–84 Eisenberg N, Eggum ND (2009) Empathic responding: Sympathy and personal distress. In: Decety J, Ickes W (eds) The social neuroscience of empathy. The MIT Press, pp 71–84
38.
go back to reference Dadds MR, Hawes DJ, Frost ADJ, Vassallo S, Bunn P, Hunter K et al (2009) Learning to ‘talk the talk’: the relationship of psychopathic traits to deficits in empathy across childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 50:599–606 CrossRef Dadds MR, Hawes DJ, Frost ADJ, Vassallo S, Bunn P, Hunter K et al (2009) Learning to ‘talk the talk’: the relationship of psychopathic traits to deficits in empathy across childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 50:599–606 CrossRef
39.
go back to reference Seara-Cardoso A, Dolberg H, Neumann C, Roiser JP, Viding E (2013) Empathy, morality and psychopathic traits in women. Personal Individ Differ 55:328–333 CrossRef Seara-Cardoso A, Dolberg H, Neumann C, Roiser JP, Viding E (2013) Empathy, morality and psychopathic traits in women. Personal Individ Differ 55:328–333 CrossRef
40.
go back to reference Wai M, Tiliopoulos N (2012) The affective and cognitive empathic nature of the dark triad of personality. Personal Individ Differ 52:794–799 CrossRef Wai M, Tiliopoulos N (2012) The affective and cognitive empathic nature of the dark triad of personality. Personal Individ Differ 52:794–799 CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Heleniak C, Jenness JL, Vander-Stoep A, McCauley E, McLaughlin KA (2016) Childhood maltreatment exposure and disruptions in emotion regulation: a transdiagnostic pathway to adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cogn Ther Res 40:394–415 CrossRef Heleniak C, Jenness JL, Vander-Stoep A, McCauley E, McLaughlin KA (2016) Childhood maltreatment exposure and disruptions in emotion regulation: a transdiagnostic pathway to adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cogn Ther Res 40:394–415 CrossRef
42.
go back to reference Kahn RE, Frick PJ, Golmaryami FN, Marsee MA (2017) The moderating role of anxiety in the associations of callous-unemotional traits with self-report and laboratory measures of affective and cognitive empathy. J Abnorm Child Psychol 45:583–596 PubMedCrossRef Kahn RE, Frick PJ, Golmaryami FN, Marsee MA (2017) The moderating role of anxiety in the associations of callous-unemotional traits with self-report and laboratory measures of affective and cognitive empathy. J Abnorm Child Psychol 45:583–596 PubMedCrossRef
43.
go back to reference Luke N, Banerjee R (2013) Differentiated associations between childhood maltreatment experiences and social understanding: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Dev Rev 33:1–28 CrossRef Luke N, Banerjee R (2013) Differentiated associations between childhood maltreatment experiences and social understanding: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Dev Rev 33:1–28 CrossRef
44.
go back to reference Everson MD, Smith JB, Hussey JM, English D, Litrownik AJ (2008) Concordance between adolescent reports of childhood abuse and child protective service determinations in an at-risk sample of young adolescents. Child Maltreat 13:14–26 PubMedCrossRef Everson MD, Smith JB, Hussey JM, English D, Litrownik AJ (2008) Concordance between adolescent reports of childhood abuse and child protective service determinations in an at-risk sample of young adolescents. Child Maltreat 13:14–26 PubMedCrossRef
45.
go back to reference Barnett D, Manly J, Cicchetti D (1993) Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child Abuse Child Dev Soc Policy 8:7–73 Barnett D, Manly J, Cicchetti D (1993) Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child Abuse Child Dev Soc Policy 8:7–73
46.
go back to reference Pears K, Fisher PA (2005) Developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged foster children: associations with prior maltreatment and placement history. J Dev Behav Pediatr 26:112–122 PubMedCrossRef Pears K, Fisher PA (2005) Developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged foster children: associations with prior maltreatment and placement history. J Dev Behav Pediatr 26:112–122 PubMedCrossRef
47.
go back to reference Ahern EC, Stolzenberg SN, McWilliams K, Lyon TD (2016) The effects of secret instructions and yes/no questions on maltreated and non-maltreated children’s reports of a minor transgression. Behav Sci Law 34:784–802 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Ahern EC, Stolzenberg SN, McWilliams K, Lyon TD (2016) The effects of secret instructions and yes/no questions on maltreated and non-maltreated children’s reports of a minor transgression. Behav Sci Law 34:784–802 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
48.
go back to reference Cooper A, Wallin AR, Quas JA, Lyon TD (2010) Maltreated and nonmaltreated children’s knowledge of the juvenile dependency court system. Child Maltreat 15:255–260 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cooper A, Wallin AR, Quas JA, Lyon TD (2010) Maltreated and nonmaltreated children’s knowledge of the juvenile dependency court system. Child Maltreat 15:255–260 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
49.
go back to reference Milojevich HM, Levine LJ, Cathcart EJ, Quas JA (2018) The role of maltreatment in the development of coping strategies. J Appl Dev Psychol 54:23–32 PubMedCrossRef Milojevich HM, Levine LJ, Cathcart EJ, Quas JA (2018) The role of maltreatment in the development of coping strategies. J Appl Dev Psychol 54:23–32 PubMedCrossRef
50.
go back to reference Frick PJ, Hare RD (2001) Antisocial process screening device: APSD. Multi-Health Systems Toronto Frick PJ, Hare RD (2001) Antisocial process screening device: APSD. Multi-Health Systems Toronto
51.
go back to reference Grisso T, Barnum R (2000) Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-2 (MAYSI-2): User’s manual and technical report. University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worchester, MA Grisso T, Barnum R (2000) Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-2 (MAYSI-2): User’s manual and technical report. University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worchester, MA
52.
go back to reference Raine A, Dodge K, Loeber R, Gatzke-Kopp L, Lynam D, Reynolds C et al (2006) The Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggress Behav 32:159–171 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Raine A, Dodge K, Loeber R, Gatzke-Kopp L, Lynam D, Reynolds C et al (2006) The Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggress Behav 32:159–171 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
53.
go back to reference Jolliffe D, Farrington DP (2006) Development and validation of the Basic Empathy Scale. J Adolesc 29:589–611 PubMedCrossRef Jolliffe D, Farrington DP (2006) Development and validation of the Basic Empathy Scale. J Adolesc 29:589–611 PubMedCrossRef
54.
go back to reference Colins OF, Bijttebier P, Broekaert E, Andershed H (2014) Psychopathic-like traits among detained female adolescents: reliability and validity of the antisocial process screening device and the youth psychopathic traits inventory. Assessment 21:195–209 PubMedCrossRef Colins OF, Bijttebier P, Broekaert E, Andershed H (2014) Psychopathic-like traits among detained female adolescents: reliability and validity of the antisocial process screening device and the youth psychopathic traits inventory. Assessment 21:195–209 PubMedCrossRef
55.
go back to reference Klapwijk ET, Aghajani M, Colins OF, Marijnissen GM, Popma A, van Lang NDJ et al (2016) Different brain responses during empathy in autism spectrum disorders versus conduct disorder and callous-unemotional traits. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 57:737–747 CrossRef Klapwijk ET, Aghajani M, Colins OF, Marijnissen GM, Popma A, van Lang NDJ et al (2016) Different brain responses during empathy in autism spectrum disorders versus conduct disorder and callous-unemotional traits. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 57:737–747 CrossRef
56.
go back to reference Schwenck C, Mergenthaler J, Keller K, Zech J, Salehi S, Taurines R et al (2012) Empathy in children with autism and conduct disorder: group-specific profiles and developmental aspects. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 53:651–659 CrossRef Schwenck C, Mergenthaler J, Keller K, Zech J, Salehi S, Taurines R et al (2012) Empathy in children with autism and conduct disorder: group-specific profiles and developmental aspects. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 53:651–659 CrossRef
57.
go back to reference Fraley C, Raftery AE (2003) Enhanced model-based clustering, density estimation, and discriminant analysis software: MCLUST. J Classif 20:263–286 CrossRef Fraley C, Raftery AE (2003) Enhanced model-based clustering, density estimation, and discriminant analysis software: MCLUST. J Classif 20:263–286 CrossRef
58.
go back to reference Lo Y, Mendell NR, Rubin DB (2001) Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika 88:767–778 CrossRef Lo Y, Mendell NR, Rubin DB (2001) Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika 88:767–778 CrossRef
59.
go back to reference Ning Y, Finch SJ (2004) The Likelihood Ratio Test with the Box-Cox Transformation for Ning Y, Finch SJ (2004) The likelihood ratio test with the box–cox transformation for the normal mixture problem: Power and sample size study. Commun Stat—Simul Comput 33:553–565 CrossRef Ning Y, Finch SJ (2004) The Likelihood Ratio Test with the Box-Cox Transformation for Ning Y, Finch SJ (2004) The likelihood ratio test with the box–cox transformation for the normal mixture problem: Power and sample size study. Commun Stat—Simul Comput 33:553–565 CrossRef
60.
go back to reference Skeem JL, Johansson P, Andershed H, Kerr M, Louden JE (2007) Two subtypes of psychopathic violent offenders that parallel primary and secondary variants. J Abnorm Psychol 116:395–409 PubMedCrossRef Skeem JL, Johansson P, Andershed H, Kerr M, Louden JE (2007) Two subtypes of psychopathic violent offenders that parallel primary and secondary variants. J Abnorm Psychol 116:395–409 PubMedCrossRef
61.
go back to reference Vaughn MG, Edens JF, Howard MO, Smith ST (2009) An investigation of primary and secondary psychopathy in a statewide sample of incarcerated youth. Youth Violence Juv Justice 7:172–188 CrossRef Vaughn MG, Edens JF, Howard MO, Smith ST (2009) An investigation of primary and secondary psychopathy in a statewide sample of incarcerated youth. Youth Violence Juv Justice 7:172–188 CrossRef
62.
go back to reference English DJ, Graham JC, Litrownik AJ, Everson M, Bangdiwala SI (2005) Defining maltreatment chronicity: Are there differences in child outcomes? Child Abuse Negl 29:575–595 PubMedCrossRef English DJ, Graham JC, Litrownik AJ, Everson M, Bangdiwala SI (2005) Defining maltreatment chronicity: Are there differences in child outcomes? Child Abuse Negl 29:575–595 PubMedCrossRef
63.
go back to reference Manly JT, Kim JE, Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D (2001) Dimensions of child maltreatment and children’s adjustment: contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Dev Psychopathol 13:759–782 PubMedCrossRef Manly JT, Kim JE, Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D (2001) Dimensions of child maltreatment and children’s adjustment: contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Dev Psychopathol 13:759–782 PubMedCrossRef
64.
go back to reference Jaffee SR, Maikovich-Fong AK (2011) Effects of chronic maltreatment and maltreatment timing on children’s behavior and cognitive abilities. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:184–194 PubMedCrossRef Jaffee SR, Maikovich-Fong AK (2011) Effects of chronic maltreatment and maltreatment timing on children’s behavior and cognitive abilities. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:184–194 PubMedCrossRef
65.
go back to reference Thornberry TP, Ireland TO, Smith CA (2001) The importance of timing: the varying impact of childhood and adolescent maltreatment on multiple problem outcomes. Dev Psychopathol 13:957–979 PubMedCrossRef Thornberry TP, Ireland TO, Smith CA (2001) The importance of timing: the varying impact of childhood and adolescent maltreatment on multiple problem outcomes. Dev Psychopathol 13:957–979 PubMedCrossRef
66.
go back to reference Azar S (2002) Parenting and child maltreatment. In: M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol 4. Social conditions and applied parenting., 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 361–388 Azar S (2002) Parenting and child maltreatment. In: M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol 4. Social conditions and applied parenting., 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 361–388
67.
go back to reference Slack KS, Holl JL, McDaniel M, Yoo J, Bolger K (2004) Understanding the risks of child neglect: an exploration of poverty and parenting characteristics. Child Maltreat 9:395–408 PubMedCrossRef Slack KS, Holl JL, McDaniel M, Yoo J, Bolger K (2004) Understanding the risks of child neglect: an exploration of poverty and parenting characteristics. Child Maltreat 9:395–408 PubMedCrossRef
68.
go back to reference Trickett PK, McBride-Chang C (1995) The developmental impact of different forms of child abuse and neglect. Dev Rev 15:311–337 CrossRef Trickett PK, McBride-Chang C (1995) The developmental impact of different forms of child abuse and neglect. Dev Rev 15:311–337 CrossRef
69.
go back to reference Wekerle C, Wolfe DA, Dunston J, Alldred T (2014) Child maltreatment. In: Mash EJ Barkley RA (eds), Child psychopathology, The Guilford Press, New York, NY, pp 737-798 Wekerle C, Wolfe DA, Dunston J, Alldred T (2014) Child maltreatment. In: Mash EJ Barkley RA (eds), Child psychopathology, The Guilford Press, New York, NY, pp 737-798
70.
71.
go back to reference Finkelhor D, Ormrod RK, Turner HA (2007) Poly-victimization: a neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse Negl 31:7–26 PubMedCrossRef Finkelhor D, Ormrod RK, Turner HA (2007) Poly-victimization: a neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse Negl 31:7–26 PubMedCrossRef
72.
go back to reference Flexon JL (2016) Callous-unemotional traits and differently motivated aggression: an examination of variants in a noninstitutionalized sample. Youth Violence Juv Justice 14:367–389 CrossRef Flexon JL (2016) Callous-unemotional traits and differently motivated aggression: an examination of variants in a noninstitutionalized sample. Youth Violence Juv Justice 14:367–389 CrossRef
73.
go back to reference Crapanzano AM, Frick PJ, Terranova AM (2010) Patterns of physical and relational aggression in a school-based sample of boys and girls. J Abnorm Child Psychol 38:433–445 PubMedCrossRef Crapanzano AM, Frick PJ, Terranova AM (2010) Patterns of physical and relational aggression in a school-based sample of boys and girls. J Abnorm Child Psychol 38:433–445 PubMedCrossRef
74.
go back to reference Ostrov JM, Murray-Close D, Godleski SA, Hart EJ (2013) Prospective associations between forms and functions of aggression and social and affective processes during early childhood. J Exp Child Psychol 116:19–36 PubMedCrossRef Ostrov JM, Murray-Close D, Godleski SA, Hart EJ (2013) Prospective associations between forms and functions of aggression and social and affective processes during early childhood. J Exp Child Psychol 116:19–36 PubMedCrossRef
75.
go back to reference Vaughn MG, Howard MO (2005) Self-report measures of juvenile psychopathic personality traits: a comparative review. J Emot Behav Disord 13:152–162 CrossRef Vaughn MG, Howard MO (2005) Self-report measures of juvenile psychopathic personality traits: a comparative review. J Emot Behav Disord 13:152–162 CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Primary and Secondary Variants of Psychopathic Traits in at-Risk Youth: Links with Maltreatment, Aggression, and Empathy
Auteurs
Stacy Metcalf
Kelli L. Dickerson
Helen M. Milojevich
Jodi A. Quas
Publicatiedatum
24-10-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Child Psychiatry & Human Development / Uitgave 6/2021
Print ISSN: 0009-398X
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3327
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-020-01083-5