Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The authors have indicated that they have no financial relationship relevant to this article to disclose.
This study examined the prenatal, postnatal and demographic predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Australian population-based sample. Participants were families participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. There were approximately even numbers of males (51%) and females (49%) in the sample. Predictors of parent-reported ADHD status at Wave 2 (children aged 6–7 years) which were measured at Wave 1 (children aged 4–5 years) included cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy (prenatal factors); maternal postnatal depression, intensive care at birth, birth weight, and gestation (postnatal factors); and child gender, primary caregiver education, income, family composition, and maternal age at childbirth (socio-demographic factors). We found that male gender, cigarette smoking during pregnancy, and maternal postnatal depression were the only significant predictors (at the 5% level) of ADHD in the adjusted analysis (N = 3,474). Our results are consistent with previous findings that male gender and cigarette smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for ADHD. In addition, we found that postnatal depression was predictive of parent-reported ADHD.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: American psychiatric association.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2005). Household income and income distribution, Australia 2003–04 (Appendix 3). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Biederman, J., Milberger, S., & Farone, S. (1995). Family-environment risk factors for ADHD: A test of Rutter’s indicators of adversity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 464–470. PubMed
Bor, W., Najman, J. M., Anderson, M. J., O’Callaghan, M., Williams, G. M., & Behrens, B. C. (1997). The relationship between low family income and psychological disturbance in young children: An Australian longitudinal study. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 664–675. PubMedCrossRef
Braun, J. M., Kahn, R. S., Froehlich, T., Auinger, P., & Lanphear, B. P. (2006). Exposures to environmental toxicants and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in U.S. children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 1904–1909. PubMed
Elgar, F. J., Curtis, L. J., McGrath, P. J., Waschbusch, D. A., & Stewart, S. H. (2003). Antecedent consequence conditions in maternal mood and child adjustment: A four-year cross-lagged study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 262–274.
Farone, S. V., Perlis, R. H., Doyle, A. E., Smoller, J. W., Goralnick, J. J., Holmgren, M. A., et al. (2005). Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1313–1323. CrossRef
Field, T. (2011). Prenatal depression effects on early development: A review. Infant Behavior & Development, 34, 1–14. CrossRef
Khan, R. S., Khoury, J., Nichols, W. C., & Lanphear, B. P. (2003). Role of dopamine transporter genotype and maternal prenatal smoking in childhood hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional behaviors. The Journal of Pediatrics, 143, 104–110. CrossRef
Linnet, K. M., Dalsgaard, S., Obel, C., Wisborg, K., Henriksen, T. B., Rodriguez, A., et al. (2003). Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: Review of the current evidence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1028–1040. PubMedCrossRef
Milberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Chen, L., & Jones, J. (1996). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1138–1142. PubMed
Sauver, J. L. S., Barbaresi, W. J., Katusic, S. K., Colligan, R. C., Weaver, A. L., & Jacobsen, S. J. (2004). Early life risk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A population-based cohort study. Mayo Clinical Proceedings, 79, 1124–1131. CrossRef
Schmitz, M., Denardin, D., Silva, T. L., Pianca, T., Hutz, M. H., Faraone, S., et al. (2006). Smoking during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type: A case-control study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1338–1345. PubMedCrossRef
Schneider, H., & Eisenberg, D. (2006). Who receives a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United States elementary school population? Pediatrics, 117, 601–609. CrossRef
Soloff, C., Lawrence, D., & Johnstone, R. (2005). LSAC technical reference paper number 1: sample design. Available at: http://aifs.gov.au/growingup/pubs/technical/index.html.
Thaper, A., Fowler, T., Rice, F., Scourfield, J., van den Bree, M., Thomas, H., et al. (2003). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in offspring. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1985–1989. CrossRef
- Predictors of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Aged 6–7 years: A National Longitudinal Study
Obioha C. Ukoumunne
- Springer US