Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 9/2015

01-09-2015 | Original Paper

Predictors of Childhood Depressed Mood: A Two-Generational Study

Auteurs: David W. Brook, Jung Yeon Lee, Neo K. Morojele, Gary Rosenberg, Judith S. Brook

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 9/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study tests a model of intergenerational influences on childhood depressed mood that proposes (1) indirect and direct paths from maternal drug use to offspring depressed mood; and (2) pathway from maternal maladaptive personality attributes to offspring depressed mood via adverse child-rearing practices. A cross-sectional two-generational design was employed. Data was obtained utilizing structured questionnaires administered by trained interviewers in the homes of the participants. The sample was comprised of African American and Puerto Rican children (N = 210) and their mothers living in New York City. Using structural equation modeling, the analysis showed that maladaptive personality attributes are associated with adverse maternal child-rearing practices, which, in turn, are related to depressed mood in the offspring. Maternal drug use had a direct effect on offspring depressed mood. Maternal drug use also had an indirect path to offspring depressed mood via maladaptive personality attributes and adverse maternal child-rearing practices. The total effects analysis indicated that adverse maternal child-rearing practices was the strongest predictor of childhood depressed mood. This finding was consistent with the proximal position of the latent construct within the model. Maternal personality attributes and drug use were of lesser importance, but still statistically significant. The results suggest that maternal drug use and maladaptive personality attributes pose risks for the future depressive mood of children. The relative strength of positive maternal involvement with offspring should be the focus of preventive and therapeutic intervention efforts.
Literatuur
go back to reference Abaied, J. L., & Rudolph, K. D. (2014). Family relationships, emotional processes, and adolescent depression. In S. Richards & M. O’Hara (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of depression and comorbidity (pp. 460–475). New York: Oxford University Press. Abaied, J. L., & Rudolph, K. D. (2014). Family relationships, emotional processes, and adolescent depression. In S. Richards & M. O’Hara (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of depression and comorbidity (pp. 460–475). New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behavior checklist 4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behavior checklist 4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
go back to reference Asgeirsdottir, B. B., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Gudjonsson, G. H., & Sigurdsson, J. F. (2011). Associations between sexual abuse and family conflict/violence, self-injurious behavior, and substance use: The mediating role of depressed mood and anger. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 210–219. PubMedCrossRef Asgeirsdottir, B. B., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Gudjonsson, G. H., & Sigurdsson, J. F. (2011). Associations between sexual abuse and family conflict/violence, self-injurious behavior, and substance use: The mediating role of depressed mood and anger. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 210–219. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. PubMedCrossRef Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bebbington, P., Jonas, S., Kuipers, E., King, M., Cooper, C., Brugha, T., & Jenkins, R. (2011). Childhood sexual abuse and psychosis: Data from a cross-sectional national psychiatric survey in England. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199, 29–37. PubMedCrossRef Bebbington, P., Jonas, S., Kuipers, E., King, M., Cooper, C., Brugha, T., & Jenkins, R. (2011). Childhood sexual abuse and psychosis: Data from a cross-sectional national psychiatric survey in England. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199, 29–37. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beydoun, H. A., Beydoun, M. A., Kaufman, J. S., Lo, B., & Zonderman, A. B. (2012). Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 75, 959–975. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Beydoun, H. A., Beydoun, M. A., Kaufman, J. S., Lo, B., & Zonderman, A. B. (2012). Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 75, 959–975. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brook, J. S., Brook, D. W., Gordon, A. S., Whiteman, M., & Cohen, P. (1990). The psychosocial etiology of adolescent drug use: A family interactional approach. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 116, 111–267. PubMed Brook, J. S., Brook, D. W., Gordon, A. S., Whiteman, M., & Cohen, P. (1990). The psychosocial etiology of adolescent drug use: A family interactional approach. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 116, 111–267. PubMed
go back to reference Brook, D. W., Brook, J. S., Zhang, C., Cohen, P., & Whiteman, M. (2002). Drug use and the risk of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1039–1044. PubMedCrossRef Brook, D. W., Brook, J. S., Zhang, C., Cohen, P., & Whiteman, M. (2002). Drug use and the risk of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1039–1044. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, RELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, RELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Caserta, M. T., Wyman, P. A., Wang, H., Moynihan, J., & O’Connor, T. G. (2011). Associations among depression, perceived self-efficacy, and immune function and health in preadolescent children. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 1139–1147. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Caserta, M. T., Wyman, P. A., Wang, H., Moynihan, J., & O’Connor, T. G. (2011). Associations among depression, perceived self-efficacy, and immune function and health in preadolescent children. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 1139–1147. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Clark, D. B., Cornelius, J., Wood, D. S., & Vanyukov, M. (2004). Psychopathology risk transmission in children of parents with substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 685–691. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Clark, D. B., Cornelius, J., Wood, D. S., & Vanyukov, M. (2004). Psychopathology risk transmission in children of parents with substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 685–691. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cole, D. A. (1990). Relation of social and academic competence to depressive symptoms in childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 422–429. PubMedCrossRef Cole, D. A. (1990). Relation of social and academic competence to depressive symptoms in childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 422–429. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Corona, M., McCarty, C., Cauce, A. M., Robins, R. W., Widaman, K. F., & Conger, R. D. (2012). The relation between maternal and child depression in Mexican American families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 34, 539–556. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Corona, M., McCarty, C., Cauce, A. M., Robins, R. W., Widaman, K. F., & Conger, R. D. (2012). The relation between maternal and child depression in Mexican American families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 34, 539–556. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Costello, A., Edelbrock, C., Kalas, R., Kessler, R., & Klaric, S. H. (1982). The diagnostic interview schedule for children, parent version (rev.). Worcester, MA: University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Costello, A., Edelbrock, C., Kalas, R., Kessler, R., & Klaric, S. H. (1982). The diagnostic interview schedule for children, parent version (rev.). Worcester, MA: University of Massachusetts Medical Center.
go back to reference Cummings, J. R., & Druss, B. G. (2011). Racial/ethnic differences in mental health service use among adolescents with major depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 160–170. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Cummings, J. R., & Druss, B. G. (2011). Racial/ethnic differences in mental health service use among adolescents with major depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 160–170. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Derogatis, L. R., Lipman, R. S., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E. H., & Covi, L. (1974). The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): A self-report symptom inventory. Behavioral Science, 19, 1–15. PubMedCrossRef Derogatis, L. R., Lipman, R. S., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E. H., & Covi, L. (1974). The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): A self-report symptom inventory. Behavioral Science, 19, 1–15. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2000). Introducing LISREL. London: Sage Publications. Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2000). Introducing LISREL. London: Sage Publications.
go back to reference Dubowitz, H., Kim, J., Black, M. M., Weisbart, C., Semiatin, J., & Magder, L. S. (2011). Identifying children at high risk for a child maltreatment report. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 96–104. PubMedCrossRef Dubowitz, H., Kim, J., Black, M. M., Weisbart, C., Semiatin, J., & Magder, L. S. (2011). Identifying children at high risk for a child maltreatment report. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 96–104. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dwairy, M. (2010). Parental inconsistency: A third cross-cultural research on parenting and psychological adjustment of children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 23–29. CrossRef Dwairy, M. (2010). Parental inconsistency: A third cross-cultural research on parenting and psychological adjustment of children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 23–29. CrossRef
go back to reference Fernando, K., Carter, J. D., Frampton, C. M., Luty, S. E., McKenzie, J., Mulder, R. T., & Joyce, P. R. (2011). Childhood-, teenage-, and adult-onset depression: Diagnostic and individual characteristics in a clinical sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52, 623–629. PubMedCrossRef Fernando, K., Carter, J. D., Frampton, C. M., Luty, S. E., McKenzie, J., Mulder, R. T., & Joyce, P. R. (2011). Childhood-, teenage-, and adult-onset depression: Diagnostic and individual characteristics in a clinical sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52, 623–629. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goh, S., Dong, Z., Zhang, Y., DiMauro, S., & Peterson, B. S. (2014). Mitochondrial dysfunction as a neurobiological subtype of autism spectrum disorder: Evidence from brain imaging. JAMA Psychiatry, 71, 665–671. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Goh, S., Dong, Z., Zhang, Y., DiMauro, S., & Peterson, B. S. (2014). Mitochondrial dysfunction as a neurobiological subtype of autism spectrum disorder: Evidence from brain imaging. JAMA Psychiatry, 71, 665–671. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M. H., Connell, A. M., Broth, M. R., Hall, C. M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 1–27. PubMedCrossRef Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M. H., Connell, A. M., Broth, M. R., Hall, C. M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 1–27. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gough, H. G. (1957). The California psychological inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Gough, H. G. (1957). The California psychological inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
go back to reference Günther, T., Konrad, K., De Brito, S. A., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., & Vloet, T. D. (2011). Attentional functions in children and adolescents with ADHD, depressive disorders, and the comorbid condition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 324–331. PubMedCrossRef Günther, T., Konrad, K., De Brito, S. A., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., & Vloet, T. D. (2011). Attentional functions in children and adolescents with ADHD, depressive disorders, and the comorbid condition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 324–331. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hankin, B. L., Fraley, R. C., Lahey, B. B., & Waldman, I. D. (2005). Is depression best viewed as a continuum or discrete category? A taxometric analysis of childhood and adolescent depression in a population-based sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 96–110. PubMedCrossRef Hankin, B. L., Fraley, R. C., Lahey, B. B., & Waldman, I. D. (2005). Is depression best viewed as a continuum or discrete category? A taxometric analysis of childhood and adolescent depression in a population-based sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 96–110. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J. G., & O’Malley, P. M. (1994). Monitoring the future: Questionnaire responses from the nation’s high school seniors, 1991. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J. G., & O’Malley, P. M. (1994). Monitoring the future: Questionnaire responses from the nation’s high school seniors, 1991. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.
go back to reference Kelleher, I., Lynch, F., Harley, M., Molloy, C., Roddy, S., Fitzpatrick, C., & Cannon, M. (2012). Psychotic symptoms in adolescence index risk for suicidal behavior: Findings from 2 population-based case-control clinical interview studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 1277–1283. PubMedCrossRef Kelleher, I., Lynch, F., Harley, M., Molloy, C., Roddy, S., Fitzpatrick, C., & Cannon, M. (2012). Psychotic symptoms in adolescence index risk for suicidal behavior: Findings from 2 population-based case-control clinical interview studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 1277–1283. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kelley, M. L., Pearson, M. R., Trinh, S., Klostermann, K., & Krakowski, K. (2011). Maternal and paternal alcoholism and depressive mood in college students: Parental relationships as mediators of ACOA-depressive mood link. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 700–706. PubMedCrossRef Kelley, M. L., Pearson, M. R., Trinh, S., Klostermann, K., & Krakowski, K. (2011). Maternal and paternal alcoholism and depressive mood in college students: Parental relationships as mediators of ACOA-depressive mood link. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 700–706. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kelloway, K. E. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling: A researcher’s guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Kelloway, K. E. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling: A researcher’s guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
go back to reference Kendler, K. S., & Gardner, C. O. (2014). Sex differences in the pathways to major depression: A study of opposite-sex twin pairs. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 426–435. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Kendler, K. S., & Gardner, C. O. (2014). Sex differences in the pathways to major depression: A study of opposite-sex twin pairs. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 426–435. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kendler, K. S., Sundquist, K., Ohlsson, H., Palmér, K., Maes, H., Winkleby, M. A., & Sundquist, J. (2012). Genetic and familial environmental influences on the risk for drug abuse: A national Swedish adoption study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 690–697. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Kendler, K. S., Sundquist, K., Ohlsson, H., Palmér, K., Maes, H., Winkleby, M. A., & Sundquist, J. (2012). Genetic and familial environmental influences on the risk for drug abuse: A national Swedish adoption study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 690–697. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lewis, G., Rice, F., Harold, G. T., Collishaw, S., & Thapar, A. (2011). Investigating environmental links between parent depression and child depressive/anxiety symptoms using an assisted conception design. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 451–459. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Lewis, G., Rice, F., Harold, G. T., Collishaw, S., & Thapar, A. (2011). Investigating environmental links between parent depression and child depressive/anxiety symptoms using an assisted conception design. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 451–459. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McConley, R. L., Mrug, S., Gilliland, M. J., Lowry, R., Elliott, M. N., Schuster, M. A., & Franklin, F. A. (2011). Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: Parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight. Obesity, 19, 345–352. PubMedCrossRef McConley, R. L., Mrug, S., Gilliland, M. J., Lowry, R., Elliott, M. N., Schuster, M. A., & Franklin, F. A. (2011). Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: Parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight. Obesity, 19, 345–352. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McDonald, R., Dodson, M. C., Rosenfield, D., & Jouriles, E. N. (2011). Effects of a parenting intervention on features of psychopathy in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 1013–1023. PubMedCrossRef McDonald, R., Dodson, M. C., Rosenfield, D., & Jouriles, E. N. (2011). Effects of a parenting intervention on features of psychopathy in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 1013–1023. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Michl, L. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Shepherd, K., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2013). Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: Longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 339–352. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Michl, L. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Shepherd, K., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2013). Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: Longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 339–352. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus users’ guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus users’ guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
go back to reference Otowa, T., Gardner, C. O., Kendler, K. S., & Hettema, J. M. (2013). Parenting and risk for mood, anxiety and substance use disorders: A study in population-based male twins. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48, 1841–1849. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Otowa, T., Gardner, C. O., Kendler, K. S., & Hettema, J. M. (2013). Parenting and risk for mood, anxiety and substance use disorders: A study in population-based male twins. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48, 1841–1849. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Owens, M., Stevenson, J., Hadwin, J. A., & Norgate, R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in academic performance: An exploration of the mediating factors of worry and working memory. School Psychology International, 33, 433–449. CrossRef Owens, M., Stevenson, J., Hadwin, J. A., & Norgate, R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in academic performance: An exploration of the mediating factors of worry and working memory. School Psychology International, 33, 433–449. CrossRef
go back to reference Pearlin, L. I., Lieberman, M. A., Menaghan, E. G., & Mullan, J. T. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356. PubMedCrossRef Pearlin, L. I., Lieberman, M. A., Menaghan, E. G., & Mullan, J. T. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pérez-Fuentes, G., Olfson, M., Villegas, L., Morcillo, C., Wang, S., & Blanco, C. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of child sexual abuse: A national study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54, 16–27. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Pérez-Fuentes, G., Olfson, M., Villegas, L., Morcillo, C., Wang, S., & Blanco, C. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of child sexual abuse: A national study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54, 16–27. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pikó, B. F., & Balázs, M. Á. (2012). Control or involvement? Relationship between authoritative parenting style and adolescent depressive symptomatology. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 149–155. PubMedCrossRef Pikó, B. F., & Balázs, M. Á. (2012). Control or involvement? Relationship between authoritative parenting style and adolescent depressive symptomatology. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 149–155. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Reinke, W. M., Eddy, J. M., Dishion, T. J., & Reid, J. B. (2012). Joint trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and depressive symptoms during early adolescence and adjustment problems during emerging adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 1123–1136. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Reinke, W. M., Eddy, J. M., Dishion, T. J., & Reid, J. B. (2012). Joint trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and depressive symptoms during early adolescence and adjustment problems during emerging adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 1123–1136. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Richardson, G. A., Goldschmidt, L., Larkby, C., & Day, N. L. (2013). Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child behavior and growth at 10 years of age. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 40, 1–8. PubMedCrossRef Richardson, G. A., Goldschmidt, L., Larkby, C., & Day, N. L. (2013). Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child behavior and growth at 10 years of age. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 40, 1–8. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schaefer, E. S. (1965). Children’s report of parental behavior: An inventory. Child Development, 36, 413–424. PubMedCrossRef Schaefer, E. S. (1965). Children’s report of parental behavior: An inventory. Child Development, 36, 413–424. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schaefer, E. S., Edgerton, M., & Comstock, M. S. (1976). Parent interview. Unpublished manuscript, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Schaefer, E. S., Edgerton, M., & Comstock, M. S. (1976). Parent interview. Unpublished manuscript, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
go back to reference Schaefer, E. S., & Finkelstein, N. W. (1975). Child behavior toward parents: An inventory and factor analysis. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, IL. Schaefer, E. S., & Finkelstein, N. W. (1975). Child behavior toward parents: An inventory and factor analysis. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.
go back to reference Shanahan, L., Copeland, W. E., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2011). Child-, adolescent-and young adult-onset depressions: Differential risk factors in development? Psychological Medicine, 41, 2265–2274. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Shanahan, L., Copeland, W. E., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2011). Child-, adolescent-and young adult-onset depressions: Differential risk factors in development? Psychological Medicine, 41, 2265–2274. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Predictors of Childhood Depressed Mood: A Two-Generational Study
Auteurs
David W. Brook
Jung Yeon Lee
Neo K. Morojele
Gary Rosenberg
Judith S. Brook
Publicatiedatum
01-09-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 9/2015
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-0082-6