Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 4/2015

01-04-2015 | Original Paper

Predicting the Risk of Pregnancy Among African American Youth: Testing a Social Contextual Model

Auteurs: Donna Hancock Hoskins, Leslie Gordon Simons

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 4/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Research has documented social and developmental consequences for youth who experience an early pregnancy. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of teenage pregnancy other than participation in risky sexual behavior. The present study tests a social-contextual model predicting pregnancy among youth. Quality of parenting, affiliation with peers who engage in risky sexual behavior, and school engagement in early adolescence are examined as antecedents of pregnancy among youth. The model is tested using a using a prospective longitudinal design with a sample of 305 high-risk African American females. Results from structural equation modeling generally provide support for the model. Findings suggest that the association between quality of parenting and pregnancy among youth is mediated by affiliation with peers who engage in risky sex and risky sexual behaviors. Implications for education and intervention are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference Akers, R. L., & Sellers, C. S. (2012). Social learning theory. In B. Feld & D. Bishop (Eds.), The oxford handbook of juvenile crime and juvenile justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Akers, R. L., & Sellers, C. S. (2012). Social learning theory. In B. Feld & D. Bishop (Eds.), The oxford handbook of juvenile crime and juvenile justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Barber, B. K., Stolz, H. E., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Parental support, psychological control, and behavioral control: Assessing relevance across time, culture, and method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70, 1–137. PubMed Barber, B. K., Stolz, H. E., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Parental support, psychological control, and behavioral control: Assessing relevance across time, culture, and method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70, 1–137. PubMed
go back to reference Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. In P. A. Cowen & H. Hetherington (Eds.), Family transitions (pp. 111–164). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. In P. A. Cowen & H. Hetherington (Eds.), Family transitions (pp. 111–164). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Bearman, P., & Bruckner, H. (1999). Power in numbers: Peer effects on adolescent girls’ sexual debut and pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Bearman, P., & Bruckner, H. (1999). Power in numbers: Peer effects on adolescent girls’ sexual debut and pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
go back to reference Benda, B. B., & DiBlasio, F. A. (1991). Comparison of four theories of adolescent sexual exploration. Deviant Behavior, 12, 235–257. CrossRef Benda, B. B., & DiBlasio, F. A. (1991). Comparison of four theories of adolescent sexual exploration. Deviant Behavior, 12, 235–257. CrossRef
go back to reference Bonell, C., Allen, E., Strange, V., Copas, A., Oakley, A., Stephenson, J., et al. (2005). The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: Testing of hypothesis using longitudinal data from a randomized trial of sex education. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 223–230. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Bonell, C., Allen, E., Strange, V., Copas, A., Oakley, A., Stephenson, J., et al. (2005). The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: Testing of hypothesis using longitudinal data from a randomized trial of sex education. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 223–230. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Brody, G. H., Conger, R., Gibbons, F. X., Ge, X., McBride Murry, V., Gerrard, M., et al. (2001). The influence of neighborhood disadvantage, collective socialization, and parenting on African American children’s affiliation with deviant peers. Child Development, 72, 1231–1246. CrossRefPubMed Brody, G. H., Conger, R., Gibbons, F. X., Ge, X., McBride Murry, V., Gerrard, M., et al. (2001). The influence of neighborhood disadvantage, collective socialization, and parenting on African American children’s affiliation with deviant peers. Child Development, 72, 1231–1246. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Molgaard, V., McNair, L., et al. (2004). The Strong African American families program: Translating research into prevention programming. Child Development, 75, 900–917. CrossRefPubMed Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Molgaard, V., McNair, L., et al. (2004). The Strong African American families program: Translating research into prevention programming. Child Development, 75, 900–917. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). YRBSS national youth risk behavior survey: 2005 health risk behaviors by race/ethnicity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). YRBSS national youth risk behavior survey: 2005 health risk behaviors by race/ethnicity.
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Unintended Pregnancy statistics. US Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Unintended Pregnancy statistics. US Department of Health and Human Services.
go back to reference Chase-Landsdale, P. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1994). Correlates of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. In C. B. Fish & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Applied developmental psychology (pp. 207–236). New York: McGraw-Hill. Chase-Landsdale, P. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1994). Correlates of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. In C. B. Fish & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Applied developmental psychology (pp. 207–236). New York: McGraw-Hill.
go back to reference Child Trends. (2009). Estimated percentage of females who will become teen mothers: Differences across states. Washington, DC: Author. Child Trends. (2009). Estimated percentage of females who will become teen mothers: Differences across states. Washington, DC: Author.
go back to reference Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys. Child Development, 63, 526–541. CrossRefPubMed Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys. Child Development, 63, 526–541. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., Sun, Y., Simons, R. L., McLoyd, V. C., & Brody, G. H. (2002). Economic pressure in African American families: A replication and extension of the family stress model. Developmental Psychology, 38(2), 179. CrossRefPubMed Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., Sun, Y., Simons, R. L., McLoyd, V. C., & Brody, G. H. (2002). Economic pressure in African American families: A replication and extension of the family stress model. Developmental Psychology, 38(2), 179. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Crosby, R. A., et al. (2001). A prospective study of psychological distress and sexual risk behavior among black adolescent females. Pediatrics, 108, 1–6. CrossRef DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Crosby, R. A., et al. (2001). A prospective study of psychological distress and sexual risk behavior among black adolescent females. Pediatrics, 108, 1–6. CrossRef
go back to reference Dishion, T. J., & McMahon, R. J. (1998). Parental monitoring and the prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior. Clinical Child and Family Psychology, 1, 61–75. CrossRef Dishion, T. J., & McMahon, R. J. (1998). Parental monitoring and the prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior. Clinical Child and Family Psychology, 1, 61–75. CrossRef
go back to reference Dishion, T. J., Capaldi, D., Spracklen, K. M., & Li, F. (1995). The development and ecology of substance use in adolescent boys. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 803–824. CrossRef Dishion, T. J., Capaldi, D., Spracklen, K. M., & Li, F. (1995). The development and ecology of substance use in adolescent boys. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 803–824. CrossRef
go back to reference Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., et al. (2005). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States. Journal of School Health, 76, 353–372. CrossRef Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., et al. (2005). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States. Journal of School Health, 76, 353–372. CrossRef
go back to reference Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J. (2000). Teenage pregnancy and female educational under-achievement: A prospective study of a New Zealand birth cohort. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 147–161. CrossRef Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J. (2000). Teenage pregnancy and female educational under-achievement: A prospective study of a New Zealand birth cohort. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 147–161. CrossRef
go back to reference Fletcher, A. C., & Jefferies, B. C. (1999). Parental mediators of associations between parental authoritative parenting and early adolescent substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 465–487. CrossRef Fletcher, A. C., & Jefferies, B. C. (1999). Parental mediators of associations between parental authoritative parenting and early adolescent substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 465–487. CrossRef
go back to reference Hockaday, C., Crase, S. J., Shelley, M. C., & Stockdale, D. F. (2000). A prospective study of adolescent pregnancy. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 423–438. CrossRefPubMed Hockaday, C., Crase, S. J., Shelley, M. C., & Stockdale, D. F. (2000). A prospective study of adolescent pregnancy. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 423–438. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hoffman, S. D., & Maynard, R. A. (Eds.). (2008). Kids having kids: Economic costs and social consequences of teen pregnancy (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Hoffman, S. D., & Maynard, R. A. (Eds.). (2008). Kids having kids: Economic costs and social consequences of teen pregnancy (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
go back to reference Hogan, D. P., Astone, N. M., & Kitagawa, E. M. (1985). Social and environmental factors influencing contraceptive use among black adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, 17, 165–169. CrossRefPubMed Hogan, D. P., Astone, N. M., & Kitagawa, E. M. (1985). Social and environmental factors influencing contraceptive use among black adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, 17, 165–169. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kan, M. L., Cheng, Y. A., Landale, N. S., & McHale, S. M. (2010). Longitudinal predictors of change in number of sexual partners across adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 25–31. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Kan, M. L., Cheng, Y. A., Landale, N. S., & McHale, S. M. (2010). Longitudinal predictors of change in number of sexual partners across adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 25–31. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Cook, W. L. (2006). Dyadic data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Cook, W. L. (2006). Dyadic data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: The Gilford Press. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: The Gilford Press.
go back to reference Kogan, S. M., Simons, L. G., Chen, Y., Burwell, S., & Brody, G. H. (2013). Protective parenting, relationship power equity, and condom use among rural African American emerging adult women. Family Relations, 62, 341–353. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Kogan, S. M., Simons, L. G., Chen, Y., Burwell, S., & Brody, G. H. (2013). Protective parenting, relationship power equity, and condom use among rural African American emerging adult women. Family Relations, 62, 341–353. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Landor, A., Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Brody, G. H., & Gibbons, F. X. (2011). The influence of religion on adolescent sexual behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 296–309. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Landor, A., Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Brody, G. H., & Gibbons, F. X. (2011). The influence of religion on adolescent sexual behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 296–309. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Li, X., Stanton, B., & Feigelman, S. (2000). Impact of perceived parental monitoring on adolescent risk behavior over 4 years. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 49–56. CrossRefPubMed Li, X., Stanton, B., & Feigelman, S. (2000). Impact of perceived parental monitoring on adolescent risk behavior over 4 years. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 49–56. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Longmore, M. A., Manning, W. D., & Giordano, P. C. (2001). Preadolescent parenting strategies and teen’s dating and sexual initiation: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 322–335. CrossRef Longmore, M. A., Manning, W. D., & Giordano, P. C. (2001). Preadolescent parenting strategies and teen’s dating and sexual initiation: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 322–335. CrossRef
go back to reference Luster, T., & Small, S. A. (1994). Factors associated with sexual risk-taking behaviors among adolescents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 56, 622–632. CrossRef Luster, T., & Small, S. A. (1994). Factors associated with sexual risk-taking behaviors among adolescents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 56, 622–632. CrossRef
go back to reference Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley. Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Manlove, J., Terry-Humen, E., Papillo, A. R., Franzetta, K., Williams, S., & Ryan, S. (2002). Preventing teenage pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted diseases: What the research shows. In Child trends research brief (pp. 1–10). Manlove, J., Terry-Humen, E., Papillo, A. R., Franzetta, K., Williams, S., & Ryan, S. (2002). Preventing teenage pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted diseases: What the research shows. In Child trends research brief (pp. 1–10).
go back to reference Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., & Sutton, P. D, et al. (2009). Births: Final data for 2006. National vital statistics reports, 57. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., & Sutton, P. D, et al. (2009). Births: Final data for 2006. National vital statistics reports, 57. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
go back to reference Miller, K. S., Forehand, R., & Kotchick, B. A. (1999). Adolescent sexual behavior in two ethnic minority samples: The role of family variables. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 85–98. CrossRef Miller, K. S., Forehand, R., & Kotchick, B. A. (1999). Adolescent sexual behavior in two ethnic minority samples: The role of family variables. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 85–98. CrossRef
go back to reference Mollborn, S., & Morningstar, E. (2009). Investigating the relationship between teenage childbearing and psychological distress using longitudinal evidence. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 310–326. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Mollborn, S., & Morningstar, E. (2009). Investigating the relationship between teenage childbearing and psychological distress using longitudinal evidence. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 310–326. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2004). Mplus: The comprehensive modeling program for applied researchers. User’s guide (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Muthen and Muthen. Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2004). Mplus: The comprehensive modeling program for applied researchers. User’s guide (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Muthen and Muthen.
go back to reference O’Connor, M. L. (1999). Academically oriented teenage women have reduced pregnancy risk. Family Planning Perspectives, 31, 105–106. CrossRef O’Connor, M. L. (1999). Academically oriented teenage women have reduced pregnancy risk. Family Planning Perspectives, 31, 105–106. CrossRef
go back to reference Pogarsky, G., Thornberry, T. P., & Lizotte, A. J. (2006). Developmental outcomes for children of young mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 332–344. CrossRef Pogarsky, G., Thornberry, T. P., & Lizotte, A. J. (2006). Developmental outcomes for children of young mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 332–344. CrossRef
go back to reference Rainey, D. Y., Stevens-Simon, C., & Kaplan, D. W. (1995). Are adolescents who report prior sexual abuse at higher risk for pregnancy? Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 1283–1288. CrossRefPubMed Rainey, D. Y., Stevens-Simon, C., & Kaplan, D. W. (1995). Are adolescents who report prior sexual abuse at higher risk for pregnancy? Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 1283–1288. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Roberts, M. E., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Weng, C. Y., Murry, V. M., Simons, L. G., et al. (2012). From racial discrimination to risky sex: Prospective relations involving peers and parents. Developmental Psychology, 48, 89. CrossRefPubMed Roberts, M. E., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Weng, C. Y., Murry, V. M., Simons, L. G., et al. (2012). From racial discrimination to risky sex: Prospective relations involving peers and parents. Developmental Psychology, 48, 89. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Scaramella, L. V., Conger, R. D., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1998). Predicting risk for pregnancy by late adolescence: A social contextual perspective. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1233–1245. CrossRefPubMed Scaramella, L. V., Conger, R. D., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1998). Predicting risk for pregnancy by late adolescence: A social contextual perspective. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1233–1245. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sieving, R., McNeely, C., & Blum, R. (2000). Maternal expectations, mother–child connectedness, and adolescent sexual debut. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 154, 809–816. CrossRefPubMed Sieving, R., McNeely, C., & Blum, R. (2000). Maternal expectations, mother–child connectedness, and adolescent sexual debut. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 154, 809–816. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Simons, L. G., & Conger, R. D. (2007). Linking gender differences in parenting to a typology of family parenting styles and adolescent developmental outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 212–241. CrossRef Simons, L. G., & Conger, R. D. (2007). Linking gender differences in parenting to a typology of family parenting styles and adolescent developmental outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 212–241. CrossRef
go back to reference Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., & Tambling, R. (2012). Identifying mediators for the influence of family factors on risky sexual behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 460–470. CrossRef Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., & Tambling, R. (2012). Identifying mediators for the influence of family factors on risky sexual behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 460–470. CrossRef
go back to reference Simons, R. L., Lin, K., Gordon, L. C., Brody, G. H., Murry, V., & Conger, R. D. (2002). Community differences in the association between parenting practices and child conduct problems. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 331–345. CrossRef Simons, R. L., Lin, K., Gordon, L. C., Brody, G. H., Murry, V., & Conger, R. D. (2002). Community differences in the association between parenting practices and child conduct problems. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 331–345. CrossRef
go back to reference Simons, L. G., Su, X., & Simons, R. L. (2013). Consequences of corporal punishment for African Americans: The importance of context and outcome. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1273–1285. CrossRefPubMed Simons, L. G., Su, X., & Simons, R. L. (2013). Consequences of corporal punishment for African Americans: The importance of context and outcome. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1273–1285. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Smith, C. (2003). Religious participation and network closure among American adolescents. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 259–267. CrossRef Smith, C. (2003). Religious participation and network closure among American adolescents. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 259–267. CrossRef
go back to reference South, S. J., & Crowder, K. (2009). Neighborhood poverty and nonmarital fertility: Spatial and temporal dimensions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 89–104. CrossRef South, S. J., & Crowder, K. (2009). Neighborhood poverty and nonmarital fertility: Spatial and temporal dimensions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 89–104. CrossRef
go back to reference Stanton, B., Li, X., Pack, R., Cottrell, L., Harris, C., & Burns, J. (2002). Longitudinal influence of perceptions of peer and parental factors on African American adolescent risk involvement. Journal of Urban Health, 79, 536–548. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Stanton, B., Li, X., Pack, R., Cottrell, L., Harris, C., & Burns, J. (2002). Longitudinal influence of perceptions of peer and parental factors on African American adolescent risk involvement. Journal of Urban Health, 79, 536–548. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent-adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1–19. CrossRef Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent-adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1–19. CrossRef
go back to reference Steinberg, L., Blatt-Eisengart, I., & Cauffman, E. (2006). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful homes: A replication in a sample of serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 47–58. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Steinberg, L., Blatt-Eisengart, I., & Cauffman, E. (2006). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful homes: A replication in a sample of serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 47–58. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Wallace, S. A., Miller, K. S., & Forehand, R. (2008). Perceived peer norms and sexual intentions among African American preadolescents. AIDS Education and Prevention, 20, 360–369. CrossRefPubMed Wallace, S. A., Miller, K. S., & Forehand, R. (2008). Perceived peer norms and sexual intentions among African American preadolescents. AIDS Education and Prevention, 20, 360–369. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wickrama, K. A. S., Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., & Elder, G. H. (2003). Linking early social risks to impaired physical health during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44, 61–74. CrossRefPubMed Wickrama, K. A. S., Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., & Elder, G. H. (2003). Linking early social risks to impaired physical health during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44, 61–74. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Predicting the Risk of Pregnancy Among African American Youth: Testing a Social Contextual Model
Auteurs
Donna Hancock Hoskins
Leslie Gordon Simons
Publicatiedatum
01-04-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 4/2015
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9925-4