Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 3/2015

01-03-2015 | Original Paper

Predicting Harsh Discipline in At-Risk Mothers: The Moderating Effect of Socioeconomic Deprivation Severity

Auteurs: Mariana Pereira, Mariana Negrão, Isabel Soares, Judi Mesman

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 3/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Socioeconomic disadvantage is an important predictor of maternal harsh discipline, but few studies have examined risk mechanisms for harsh parenting within disadvantaged samples. In the present study, parenting stress, family conflict, and child difficult temperament are examined as predictors of maternal harsh discipline among a group of 58 mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds and their young children between the ages of 1- to 4-years-old. Maternal harsh discipline was measured using standardized observations, and mothers reported on parenting stress, family conflict, and child temperament. Severity of socioeconomic deprivation was included as a moderator in these associations. Results showed that parenting stress and family conflict predicted maternal harsh discipline, but only in the most severely deprived families. These findings extend prior research on the processes through which socioeconomic deprivation severity and family functioning impact maternal harsh discipline within a high-risk sample of low-income families. They suggest that the spillover of negative parental functioning into parent–child interactions is particularly likely under conditions of substantial socioeconomic deprivation. Severity of socioeconomic stress seems to undermine maternal adaptive forms of coping, resulting in harsh disciplining practices. Intervention efforts aimed at improving parenting and family relations, as well as an adaptive coping style assume especial relevance.
Literatuur
go back to reference Aber, J. L., Belsky, J., Slade, A., & Crnic, K. (1999). Stability and change in mothers’ representations of their relationship with their toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1038–1047. CrossRefPubMed Aber, J. L., Belsky, J., Slade, A., & Crnic, K. (1999). Stability and change in mothers’ representations of their relationship with their toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1038–1047. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ammerman, R. T., Stevens, J., Putnam, F. W., Altaye, M., Hulsmann, J. E., Lehmkuhl, H. D., et al. (2006). Predictors of early engagement in home visitation. Journal of Family Violence, 21, 105–115. CrossRef Ammerman, R. T., Stevens, J., Putnam, F. W., Altaye, M., Hulsmann, J. E., Lehmkuhl, H. D., et al. (2006). Predictors of early engagement in home visitation. Journal of Family Violence, 21, 105–115. CrossRef
go back to reference Ateah, C. A., Secco, M. L., & Woodgate, R. L. (2003). The risks and alternatives to physical punishment use with children. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 17, 126–132. CrossRefPubMed Ateah, C. A., Secco, M. L., & Woodgate, R. L. (2003). The risks and alternatives to physical punishment use with children. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 17, 126–132. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K. A., Dave, S., Frost, M., Melhuish, E., et al. (2005). Disadvantaged but different: Variation among deprived communities in relation to child and family well-being. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 952–962. CrossRefPubMed Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K. A., Dave, S., Frost, M., Melhuish, E., et al. (2005). Disadvantaged but different: Variation among deprived communities in relation to child and family well-being. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 952–962. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bates, J., Freeland, C. A., & Lounsbury, M. L. (1979). Measurement of infant difficultness. Child Development, 50, 794–803. CrossRefPubMed Bates, J., Freeland, C. A., & Lounsbury, M. L. (1979). Measurement of infant difficultness. Child Development, 50, 794–803. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Belsky, J. (1993). Etiology of child maltreatment: A developmental-ecological analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 413–434. CrossRefPubMed Belsky, J. (1993). Etiology of child maltreatment: A developmental-ecological analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 413–434. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bugental, D. B., Lewis, J. C., Lin, E., Lyon, J., & Kopeikin, H. (1999). In charge but not in control: The management of teaching relationships by adults with low perceived power. Developmental Pychology, 35, 1367–1378. CrossRef Bugental, D. B., Lewis, J. C., Lin, E., Lyon, J., & Kopeikin, H. (1999). In charge but not in control: The management of teaching relationships by adults with low perceived power. Developmental Pychology, 35, 1367–1378. CrossRef
go back to reference Carneiro, A., Dias, P., Magalhães, C., Soares, I., Rangel-Henriques, M., Silva, J., et al. (2013). Assessment of temperament at 13 and 24 months using maternal report: Validation of the Portuguese version of Infant Characteristics Questionnaire. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 23, 71–79. Carneiro, A., Dias, P., Magalhães, C., Soares, I., Rangel-Henriques, M., Silva, J., et al. (2013). Assessment of temperament at 13 and 24 months using maternal report: Validation of the Portuguese version of Infant Characteristics Questionnaire. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 23, 71–79.
go back to reference Caselles, C. E., & Milner, J. S. (2000). Evaluations of child transgressions, disciplinary choices, and expected child compliance in a no-cry and a crying infant condition in physically abusive and comparison mothers. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 477–491. CrossRefPubMed Caselles, C. E., & Milner, J. S. (2000). Evaluations of child transgressions, disciplinary choices, and expected child compliance in a no-cry and a crying infant condition in physically abusive and comparison mothers. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 477–491. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chan, Y. (1994). Parenting stress and social support of mothers who physically abuse their children in Hong Kong. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 261–269. CrossRefPubMed Chan, Y. (1994). Parenting stress and social support of mothers who physically abuse their children in Hong Kong. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 261–269. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Coll, G. C., Meyer, E. C., & Brillon, L. (1995). Ethnic and minority parenting. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting. Biology and ecology of parenting (Vol. 2, pp. 189–209). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Coll, G. C., Meyer, E. C., & Brillon, L. (1995). Ethnic and minority parenting. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting. Biology and ecology of parenting (Vol. 2, pp. 189–209). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescents boys. Child Development, 63, 526–541. CrossRefPubMed Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescents boys. Child Development, 63, 526–541. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Conger, R. D., & Donnellan, M. B. (2007). An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annual Reviews Psychology, 58, 175–199. CrossRef Conger, R. D., & Donnellan, M. B. (2007). An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annual Reviews Psychology, 58, 175–199. CrossRef
go back to reference Crnic, K. A., Gaze, C., & Hoffman, C. (2005). Cumulative parenting stress across the preschool period: Relations to maternal parenting and child behaviour at age 5. Infant and Child Development, 14, 117–132. CrossRef Crnic, K. A., Gaze, C., & Hoffman, C. (2005). Cumulative parenting stress across the preschool period: Relations to maternal parenting and child behaviour at age 5. Infant and Child Development, 14, 117–132. CrossRef
go back to reference Cummings, E. M. (1994). Marital conflict and children’s functioning. Social Development, 3, 16–36. CrossRef Cummings, E. M. (1994). Marital conflict and children’s functioning. Social Development, 3, 16–36. CrossRef
go back to reference Deater-Deckard, K., Chen, N., Wang, Z., & Bell, M. A. (2012). Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 391–399. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Deater-Deckard, K., Chen, N., Wang, Z., & Bell, M. A. (2012). Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 391–399. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Dehon, C., & Weems, C. F. (2010). Emotional development in the context of conflict: The indirect effects of interparental violence on children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 287–297. CrossRef Dehon, C., & Weems, C. F. (2010). Emotional development in the context of conflict: The indirect effects of interparental violence on children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 287–297. CrossRef
go back to reference Dietz, T. L. (2000). Disciplining children: Characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 1529–1542. CrossRefPubMed Dietz, T. L. (2000). Disciplining children: Characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 1529–1542. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Frías-Armenta, M., & McCloskey, L. A. (1998). Determinants of harsh parenting in Mexico. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 129–139. CrossRefPubMed Frías-Armenta, M., & McCloskey, L. A. (1998). Determinants of harsh parenting in Mexico. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 129–139. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviours and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539–579. CrossRefPubMed Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviours and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539–579. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gottman, J. M. (1993). The roles of conflict engagement, escalation, and avoidance in marital interaction: A longitudinal view of five types of couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 6–15. CrossRefPubMed Gottman, J. M. (1993). The roles of conflict engagement, escalation, and avoidance in marital interaction: A longitudinal view of five types of couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 6–15. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jackson, A. P., & Huang, C. C. (2000). Parenting stress and behavior among single mothers of preschoolers: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Journal of Social Service Research, 26, 29–42. Jackson, A. P., & Huang, C. C. (2000). Parenting stress and behavior among single mothers of preschoolers: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Journal of Social Service Research, 26, 29–42.
go back to reference Jackson, S., Thompson, R. A., Christiansen, E. H., Colman, R. A., Wyatt, J., Buckendahl, C. W., et al. (1999). Predicting abuse-prone parental attitudes and discipline practices in a nationally representative sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 15–29. CrossRefPubMed Jackson, S., Thompson, R. A., Christiansen, E. H., Colman, R. A., Wyatt, J., Buckendahl, C. W., et al. (1999). Predicting abuse-prone parental attitudes and discipline practices in a nationally representative sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 15–29. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Thomas, M., Price, T. S., & Taylor, A. (2004). The limits of child effects: Evidence for genetically mediated child effects on corporal punishment but not on physical maltreatment. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1047–1058. CrossRefPubMed Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Thomas, M., Price, T. S., & Taylor, A. (2004). The limits of child effects: Evidence for genetically mediated child effects on corporal punishment but not on physical maltreatment. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1047–1058. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jansen, P. W., Raat, H., Mackenbach, J. P., Hofman, A., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., et al. (2012). Early determinants of maternal and paternal harsh discipline: The generation R study. Family Relations, 61, 253–270. CrossRef Jansen, P. W., Raat, H., Mackenbach, J. P., Hofman, A., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., et al. (2012). Early determinants of maternal and paternal harsh discipline: The generation R study. Family Relations, 61, 253–270. CrossRef
go back to reference Jenkins, J. M., Rasbash, J., & O’Connor, T. G. (2003). The role of the shared family context in differential parenting. Developmental Psychology, 39, 99–113. CrossRefPubMed Jenkins, J. M., Rasbash, J., & O’Connor, T. G. (2003). The role of the shared family context in differential parenting. Developmental Psychology, 39, 99–113. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Joosen, K. J., Mesman, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2012). Maternal sensitivity to infants in various settings predicts harsh discipline in toddlerhood. Attachment and Human Development, 14, 101–117. CrossRefPubMed Joosen, K. J., Mesman, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2012). Maternal sensitivity to infants in various settings predicts harsh discipline in toddlerhood. Attachment and Human Development, 14, 101–117. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jouriles, E. N., Barling, J., & O’Leary, K. D. (1987). Predicting child behaviour problems in maritally violent families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 165–173. CrossRefPubMed Jouriles, E. N., Barling, J., & O’Leary, K. D. (1987). Predicting child behaviour problems in maritally violent families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 165–173. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaffer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two models of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 1–39. CrossRefPubMed Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaffer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two models of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 1–39. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Keppel, G., & Wickens, T. D. (2004). Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook (4th international). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall. Keppel, G., & Wickens, T. D. (2004). Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook (4th international). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
go back to reference Kim, H. K., Pears, K. C., Fisher, P. A., Connelly, C. D., & Landsverk, J. A. (2010). Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 897–906. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Kim, H. K., Pears, K. C., Fisher, P. A., Connelly, C. D., & Landsverk, J. A. (2010). Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 897–906. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Kochanska, G. (2002). Committed compliance, moral self, and internalization: A mediational model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 339–351. CrossRefPubMed Kochanska, G. (2002). Committed compliance, moral self, and internalization: A mediational model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 339–351. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Koenig, J. L., Barry, R. A., & Kochanska, G. (2010). Rearing difficult children: Parents’ personality and children’s proneness to anger as predictors of future parenting. Parenting: Science and Practice, 10, 258–273. Koenig, J. L., Barry, R. A., & Kochanska, G. (2010). Rearing difficult children: Parents’ personality and children’s proneness to anger as predictors of future parenting. Parenting: Science and Practice, 10, 258–273.
go back to reference Koeske, G. F., & Koeske, R. D. (1990). The buffering effect of social support on parental stress. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 440–451. CrossRefPubMed Koeske, G. F., & Koeske, R. D. (1990). The buffering effect of social support on parental stress. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 440–451. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Laskey, B. J., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2009). Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: Associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35, 717–727. Laskey, B. J., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2009). Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: Associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35, 717–727.
go back to reference Lorber, M. F., & O’Leary, S. G. (2005). Mediated paths to overreactive discipline: Mothers’ experienced emotion, appraisals, and physiological responses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 972–981. CrossRefPubMed Lorber, M. F., & O’Leary, S. G. (2005). Mediated paths to overreactive discipline: Mothers’ experienced emotion, appraisals, and physiological responses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 972–981. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Maisel, N. C., & Karney, B. R. (2012). Socioeconomic status moderates associations among stressful events, mental health, and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 654–660. CrossRefPubMed Maisel, N. C., & Karney, B. R. (2012). Socioeconomic status moderates associations among stressful events, mental health, and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 654–660. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mäntymaa, M., Puura, K., Luoma, I., Salmelin, R. K., & Tamminen, T. (2006). Mother’s early perception of her infant’s difficult temperament, parenting stress and early mother-infant interaction. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 379–386. CrossRefPubMed Mäntymaa, M., Puura, K., Luoma, I., Salmelin, R. K., & Tamminen, T. (2006). Mother’s early perception of her infant’s difficult temperament, parenting stress and early mother-infant interaction. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 379–386. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Margolin, G., Christensen, A., & John, R. S. (1996). The continuance and spillover of everyday tensions in distressed and nondistressed families. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 304–321. CrossRef Margolin, G., Christensen, A., & John, R. S. (1996). The continuance and spillover of everyday tensions in distressed and nondistressed families. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 304–321. CrossRef
go back to reference Maupin, A. N., Brophy-Herb, H. E., Schiffman, R. F., & Bocknek, E. L. (2010). Low-income parental profiles of coping, resource adequacy, and public assistance receipt: Links to parenting. Family Relations, 59, 180–194. CrossRef Maupin, A. N., Brophy-Herb, H. E., Schiffman, R. F., & Bocknek, E. L. (2010). Low-income parental profiles of coping, resource adequacy, and public assistance receipt: Links to parenting. Family Relations, 59, 180–194. CrossRef
go back to reference McCurdy, K. (2005). The influence of support and stress on maternal attitudes. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 251–268. CrossRefPubMed McCurdy, K. (2005). The influence of support and stress on maternal attitudes. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 251–268. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McGroder, S. M. (2000). Parenting among low-income, African American single mothers with preschool-age children: Patterns, predictors, and developmental correlates. Child Development, 71, 752–771. CrossRefPubMed McGroder, S. M. (2000). Parenting among low-income, African American single mothers with preschool-age children: Patterns, predictors, and developmental correlates. Child Development, 71, 752–771. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346. CrossRefPubMed McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204. CrossRefPubMed McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Milner, J. S., Halsey, L. B., & Fultz, J. (1995). Empathic responsiveness and affective reactivity to infant stimuli in high- and low-risk for physical child abuse mother. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 767–780. CrossRefPubMed Milner, J. S., Halsey, L. B., & Fultz, J. (1995). Empathic responsiveness and affective reactivity to infant stimuli in high- and low-risk for physical child abuse mother. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 767–780. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1986). Family environment scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1986). Family environment scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
go back to reference Nanda, M. N., Kotchick, B. A., & Grover, R. L. (2012). Parental psychological control and childhood anxiety: The mediating role of perceived lack of control. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 637–645. CrossRef Nanda, M. N., Kotchick, B. A., & Grover, R. L. (2012). Parental psychological control and childhood anxiety: The mediating role of perceived lack of control. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 637–645. CrossRef
go back to reference Navaie-Waliser, M., Martin, S. L., Tessaro, I., Campbell, M. K., & Cross, A. W. (2000). Social support and psychological functioning among high-risk mothers: The impact of the Baby Love Maternal Outreach Worker Program. Public Health Nursing, 17, 280–291. CrossRefPubMed Navaie-Waliser, M., Martin, S. L., Tessaro, I., Campbell, M. K., & Cross, A. W. (2000). Social support and psychological functioning among high-risk mothers: The impact of the Baby Love Maternal Outreach Worker Program. Public Health Nursing, 17, 280–291. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Nelson, D. A., Yang, C., Coyne, S. M., Olsen, J. A., & Hart, C. H. (2013). Parental psychological control dimensions: Connections with Russian preschoolers’ physical and relational aggression. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34, 1–8. CrossRef Nelson, D. A., Yang, C., Coyne, S. M., Olsen, J. A., & Hart, C. H. (2013). Parental psychological control dimensions: Connections with Russian preschoolers’ physical and relational aggression. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34, 1–8. CrossRef
go back to reference Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process: A social learning approach. Eugene, OR: Castalia. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process: A social learning approach. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
go back to reference Pereira, M., Negrão, M., Soares, I., Almeida, A. T., & Machado (2009). Portuguese short- version of the family risks and strengths profile. Unpublished raw data. Pereira, M., Negrão, M., Soares, I., Almeida, A. T., & Machado (2009). Portuguese short- version of the family risks and strengths profile. Unpublished raw data.
go back to reference Rafferty, Y., & Griffin, K. W. (2010). Parenting behaviours among low-income mothers of preschool age children in the USA: Implications for parenting programmes. International Journal of Early Years Education, 18, 143–157. CrossRef Rafferty, Y., & Griffin, K. W. (2010). Parenting behaviours among low-income mothers of preschool age children in the USA: Implications for parenting programmes. International Journal of Early Years Education, 18, 143–157. CrossRef
go back to reference Respler-Herman, M., Mowder, B. A., Yasik, A. E., & Shamah, R. (2012). Parenting beliefs, parental stress, and social support relationships. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 190–198. CrossRef Respler-Herman, M., Mowder, B. A., Yasik, A. E., & Shamah, R. (2012). Parenting beliefs, parental stress, and social support relationships. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 190–198. CrossRef
go back to reference Ricketts, H., & Anderson, P. (2008). The impact of poverty on the interaction of Jamaican caregivers with young children. International Journal of Early Years Education, 16, 61–74. CrossRef Ricketts, H., & Anderson, P. (2008). The impact of poverty on the interaction of Jamaican caregivers with young children. International Journal of Early Years Education, 16, 61–74. CrossRef
go back to reference Roberts, B. W., & DelVecchio, W. F. (2000). The rank-order consistency of personality traits from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 3–25. CrossRefPubMed Roberts, B. W., & DelVecchio, W. F. (2000). The rank-order consistency of personality traits from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 3–25. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rodríguez, G., Camacho, J., Rodrigo, M. J., Martín, J. C., & Máiquez, M. L. (2006). Evaluación del riesgo psicosocial en familias usuarias de servicios sociales municipales [Psychosocial risk assessment in families using municipal social services]. Psicothema, 18, 200–206. PubMed Rodríguez, G., Camacho, J., Rodrigo, M. J., Martín, J. C., & Máiquez, M. L. (2006). Evaluación del riesgo psicosocial en familias usuarias de servicios sociales municipales [Psychosocial risk assessment in families using municipal social services]. Psicothema, 18, 200–206. PubMed
go back to reference Shelton, K. H., & Harold, G. T. (2008). Interparental conflict, negative parenting, and children’s adjustment: Bridging links between parents’ depression and children’s psychological distress. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 712–724. CrossRefPubMed Shelton, K. H., & Harold, G. T. (2008). Interparental conflict, negative parenting, and children’s adjustment: Bridging links between parents’ depression and children’s psychological distress. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 712–724. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Smith, J. R., Brooks-Gunn, J., Kohen, D., & McCarton, C. (2001). Transitions on and off AFDC: Implications for parenting and children’s cognitive development. Child Development, 72, 1512–1533. CrossRefPubMed Smith, J. R., Brooks-Gunn, J., Kohen, D., & McCarton, C. (2001). Transitions on and off AFDC: Implications for parenting and children’s cognitive development. Child Development, 72, 1512–1533. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Solomon, C. R., & Serres, F. (1999). Effects of parental verbal aggression on children’s self-esteem and school marks. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 339–351. CrossRefPubMed Solomon, C. R., & Serres, F. (1999). Effects of parental verbal aggression on children’s self-esteem and school marks. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23, 339–351. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Stover, C. S., Connell, C. M., Leve, L. D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., Scaramella, L. V., et al. (2012). Fathering and mothering in the family system: Linking marital hostility and aggression in adopted toddlers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 401–409. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Stover, C. S., Connell, C. M., Leve, L. D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., Scaramella, L. V., et al. (2012). Fathering and mothering in the family system: Linking marital hostility and aggression in adopted toddlers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 401–409. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Sturge-Apple, M. L., Davies, P. T., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (2009). The role of mothers’ and fathers’ adrenocortical reactivity in spillover between interparental conflict and parenting practices. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 215–225. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Sturge-Apple, M. L., Davies, P. T., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (2009). The role of mothers’ and fathers’ adrenocortical reactivity in spillover between interparental conflict and parenting practices. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 215–225. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Tabachnik, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Tabachnik, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
go back to reference Veríssimo, M., & Dias, P. (2012). Validation of the Portuguese version of Infant Characteristics Questionnaire from 33 to 71  months of age. Unpublished raw data. Veríssimo, M., & Dias, P. (2012). Validation of the Portuguese version of Infant Characteristics Questionnaire from 33 to 71  months of age. Unpublished raw data.
go back to reference Verschueren, K., Dossche, D., Marcoen, A., Mahieu, S., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2006). Attachment representations and discipline in mothers of young school children: An observation study. Social Development, 15, 659–675. CrossRef Verschueren, K., Dossche, D., Marcoen, A., Mahieu, S., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2006). Attachment representations and discipline in mothers of young school children: An observation study. Social Development, 15, 659–675. CrossRef
go back to reference Webster-Stratton, C. (1988). Mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of child deviance: Roles of parent and child behaviors and parent adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 909–915. CrossRefPubMed Webster-Stratton, C. (1988). Mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of child deviance: Roles of parent and child behaviors and parent adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 909–915. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Webster-Stratton, C. (1990). Stress: A potential disruptor of parent perceptions and family interactions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 302–312. CrossRef Webster-Stratton, C. (1990). Stress: A potential disruptor of parent perceptions and family interactions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 302–312. CrossRef
go back to reference Whipple, E. E., & Webster-Stratton, C. (1991). The role of parental stress in physically abusive families. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 279–291. CrossRefPubMed Whipple, E. E., & Webster-Stratton, C. (1991). The role of parental stress in physically abusive families. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 279–291. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Predicting Harsh Discipline in At-Risk Mothers: The Moderating Effect of Socioeconomic Deprivation Severity
Auteurs
Mariana Pereira
Mariana Negrão
Isabel Soares
Judi Mesman
Publicatiedatum
01-03-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 3/2015
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9883-2