Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 10/2012

01-10-2012 | Original Paper

Precursors to Social and Communication Difficulties in Infants At-Risk for Autism: Gaze Following and Attentional Engagement

Auteurs: Rachael Bedford, Mayada Elsabbagh, Teodora Gliga, Andrew Pickles, Atsushi Senju, Tony Charman, Mark H. Johnson, the BASIS team

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 10/2012

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Whilst joint attention (JA) impairments in autism have been widely studied, little is known about the early development of gaze following, a precursor to establishing JA. We employed eye-tracking to record gaze following longitudinally in infants with and without a family history of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 7 and 13 months. No group difference was found between at-risk and low-risk infants in gaze following behaviour at either age. However, despite following gaze successfully at 13 months, at-risk infants with later emerging socio-communication difficulties (both those with ASD and atypical development at 36 months of age) allocated less attention to the congruent object compared to typically developing at-risk siblings and low-risk controls. The findings suggest that the subtle emergence of difficulties in JA in infancy may be related to ASD and other atypical outcomes.
Literatuur
go back to reference Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Lancet, 368, 210–215. PubMedCrossRef Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Lancet, 368, 210–215. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (1989). Perceptual role taking and protodeclarative pointing in autism. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, 113–127. CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S. (1989). Perceptual role taking and protodeclarative pointing in autism. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, 113–127. CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Boston: MIT Press/Bradford Books. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Boston: MIT Press/Bradford Books.
go back to reference Batki, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Connellan, J., & Ahluwalia, J. (2000). Is there an innate gaze module? Evidence from human neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 23, 223–229. CrossRef Batki, A., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Connellan, J., & Ahluwalia, J. (2000). Is there an innate gaze module? Evidence from human neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 23, 223–229. CrossRef
go back to reference Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M. E., et al. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 877–900. PubMedCrossRef Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M. E., et al. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 877–900. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brooks, R., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2005). The development of gaze following and its relation to language. Developmental Science, 8, 535–543. PubMedCrossRef Brooks, R., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2005). The development of gaze following and its relation to language. Developmental Science, 8, 535–543. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Butterworth, G., & Jarrett, N. (1991). What minds have in common in space: Spatial mechanisms serving joint visual attention in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 55–72. CrossRef Butterworth, G., & Jarrett, N. (1991). What minds have in common in space: Spatial mechanisms serving joint visual attention in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 55–72. CrossRef
go back to reference Caron, A. J., Caron, R., Roberts, J., & Brooks, R. (1997). Infant sensitivity to deviations in dynamic facial-vocal displays: The role of eye regard. Developmental Psychology, 33, 802–813. PubMedCrossRef Caron, A. J., Caron, R., Roberts, J., & Brooks, R. (1997). Infant sensitivity to deviations in dynamic facial-vocal displays: The role of eye regard. Developmental Psychology, 33, 802–813. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (4, Serial No. 255). Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (4, Serial No. 255).
go back to reference Cassel, T. D., Messinger, D. S., Ibanez, L. V., Haltigan, J. D., Acosta, S. I., & Buchman, A. C. (2007). Early social and emotional communication in the infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders: An examination of the broad phenotype. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 122–132. PubMedCrossRef Cassel, T. D., Messinger, D. S., Ibanez, L. V., Haltigan, J. D., Acosta, S. I., & Buchman, A. C. (2007). Early social and emotional communication in the infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders: An examination of the broad phenotype. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 122–132. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Charman, T. (2003). Why is joint attention a pivotal skill in autism? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 358, 315–324. CrossRef Charman, T. (2003). Why is joint attention a pivotal skill in autism? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 358, 315–324. CrossRef
go back to reference Charman, T., & Baird, G. (2002). Practitioner review: Assessment and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the pre-school years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 289–305. PubMedCrossRef Charman, T., & Baird, G. (2002). Practitioner review: Assessment and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the pre-school years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 289–305. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chawarska, K., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2-year-old children with autism. Child Development, 74, 1108–1122. PubMedCrossRef Chawarska, K., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2-year-old children with autism. Child Development, 74, 1108–1122. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Constantino, J. N., Zhang, Y., Frazier, T., Abbacchi, A. M., & Law, P. (2010). Sibling recurrence and the genetic epidemiology of autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 1349–1356. PubMedCrossRef Constantino, J. N., Zhang, Y., Frazier, T., Abbacchi, A. M., & Law, P. (2010). Sibling recurrence and the genetic epidemiology of autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 1349–1356. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Deaner, R. O., & Platt, M. L. (2003). Reflexive social attention in monkeys and humans. Current Biology, 13, 1609–1613. PubMedCrossRef Deaner, R. O., & Platt, M. L. (2003). Reflexive social attention in monkeys and humans. Current Biology, 13, 1609–1613. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Driver, J., Davis, G., Ricciardelli, P., Kidd, P., Maxwell, E., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). Gaze perception triggers reflexive visuospatial orienting. Visual Cognition, 6, 509–540. CrossRef Driver, J., Davis, G., Ricciardelli, P., Kidd, P., Maxwell, E., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). Gaze perception triggers reflexive visuospatial orienting. Visual Cognition, 6, 509–540. CrossRef
go back to reference Elsabbagh, M., & Johnson, M. H. (2007). Infancy and autism: Progress, prospects, and challenges. Progress in Brain Research, 164, 355–382. PubMedCrossRef Elsabbagh, M., & Johnson, M. H. (2007). Infancy and autism: Progress, prospects, and challenges. Progress in Brain Research, 164, 355–382. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Elsabbagh, M., & Johnson, M. H. (2010). Getting answers from babies about autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 81–87. PubMedCrossRef Elsabbagh, M., & Johnson, M. H. (2010). Getting answers from babies about autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 81–87. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Elsabbagh, M., Volein, A., Csibra, G., Holmboe, K., Garwood, H., Tucker, L., et al. (2009). Neural correlates of eye gaze processing in the infant broader autism phenotype. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 31–38. PubMedCrossRef Elsabbagh, M., Volein, A., Csibra, G., Holmboe, K., Garwood, H., Tucker, L., et al. (2009). Neural correlates of eye gaze processing in the infant broader autism phenotype. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 31–38. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Farroni, T., Csibra, G., Simion, F., & Johnson, M. H. (2002). Eye contact detection in humans from birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 9602–9605. PubMedCrossRef Farroni, T., Csibra, G., Simion, F., & Johnson, M. H. (2002). Eye contact detection in humans from birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 9602–9605. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Farroni, T., Mansfield, E. M., Lai, C., & Johnson, M. H. (2003). Infants perceiving and acting on the eyes: Tests of an evolutionary hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 85, 199–212. PubMedCrossRef Farroni, T., Mansfield, E. M., Lai, C., & Johnson, M. H. (2003). Infants perceiving and acting on the eyes: Tests of an evolutionary hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 85, 199–212. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Farroni, T., Massaccesi, S., Pividori, D., & Johnson, M. H. (2004). Gaze following in Newborns. Infancy, 5, 39–60. CrossRef Farroni, T., Massaccesi, S., Pividori, D., & Johnson, M. H. (2004). Gaze following in Newborns. Infancy, 5, 39–60. CrossRef
go back to reference Fombonne, E., Simmons, H., Ford, T., Meltzer, H., & Goodman, R. (2003). Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in the British nationwide survey of child mental health. International Review of Psychiatry, 15, 158–165. PubMedCrossRef Fombonne, E., Simmons, H., Ford, T., Meltzer, H., & Goodman, R. (2003). Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in the British nationwide survey of child mental health. International Review of Psychiatry, 15, 158–165. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Frischen, A., Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2007). Gaze cueing of attention. Visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 694–724. PubMedCrossRef Frischen, A., Bayliss, A. P., & Tipper, S. P. (2007). Gaze cueing of attention. Visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 694–724. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goldberg, W. A., Jarvis, K. L., Osann, K., Laulhere, T. M., Straub, C., Thomas, E., et al. (2005). Brief report: Early social communication behaviors in the younger siblings of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 657–664. PubMedCrossRef Goldberg, W. A., Jarvis, K. L., Osann, K., Laulhere, T. M., Straub, C., Thomas, E., et al. (2005). Brief report: Early social communication behaviors in the younger siblings of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 657–664. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, R., Ford, T., Richards, H., Gatward, R., & Meltzer, H. (2000). The development and well-being assessment: Description and initial validation of an integrated assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 645–655. PubMedCrossRef Goodman, R., Ford, T., Richards, H., Gatward, R., & Meltzer, H. (2000). The development and well-being assessment: Description and initial validation of an integrated assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 645–655. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hare, B., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Communication of food location between human and dog ( Canis Familiaris). Evolution of Communication, 2, 137–159. Hare, B., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Communication of food location between human and dog ( Canis Familiaris). Evolution of Communication, 2, 137–159.
go back to reference Hood, B. M., & Atkinson, J. (1993). Disengaging visual-attention in the infant and adult. Infant Behavior and Development, 16(4), 423–439. CrossRef Hood, B. M., & Atkinson, J. (1993). Disengaging visual-attention in the infant and adult. Infant Behavior and Development, 16(4), 423–439. CrossRef
go back to reference Hood, B. M., Willen, J. D., & Driver, J. (1998). Gaze perception triggers corresponding shifts of visual attention in young infants. Psychological Science, 9, 131–134. CrossRef Hood, B. M., Willen, J. D., & Driver, J. (1998). Gaze perception triggers corresponding shifts of visual attention in young infants. Psychological Science, 9, 131–134. CrossRef
go back to reference Landa, R., Holman, K. C., & Garrett-Mayer, E. (2007). Social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 853–864. PubMedCrossRef Landa, R., Holman, K. C., & Garrett-Mayer, E. (2007). Social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 853–864. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communicative deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRef Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communicative deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M. L., & LeCouteur, A. (1994). The autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Rutter, M. L., & LeCouteur, A. (1994). The autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moore, C., & Corkum, V. (1998). Infant gaze following based on eye direction. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 495–503. CrossRef Moore, C., & Corkum, V. (1998). Infant gaze following based on eye direction. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 495–503. CrossRef
go back to reference Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service Inc. Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service Inc.
go back to reference Mundy, P., Sigman, M., Ungerer, J., & Sherman, T. (1986). Defining the social deficits of autism: The contribution of non-verbal communication measures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 657–669. PubMedCrossRef Mundy, P., Sigman, M., Ungerer, J., & Sherman, T. (1986). Defining the social deficits of autism: The contribution of non-verbal communication measures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 657–669. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mundy, P., Sullivan, L., & Mastergeorge, A. M. (2009). A parallel and distributed-processing model of joint attention, social cognition and autism. Autism Research, 2, 2–21. PubMedCrossRef Mundy, P., Sullivan, L., & Mastergeorge, A. M. (2009). A parallel and distributed-processing model of joint attention, social cognition and autism. Autism Research, 2, 2–21. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nation, K., & Penny, S. (2008). Sensitivity to eye gaze in autism: Is it normal? Is it automatic? Is it social? Development and Psychopathology, 20, 79–97. PubMedCrossRef Nation, K., & Penny, S. (2008). Sensitivity to eye gaze in autism: Is it normal? Is it automatic? Is it social? Development and Psychopathology, 20, 79–97. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., Young, G. S., Carter, A., Messinger, D., Yirmiya, N., Zwaigenbaum, L., et al. (2011). Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: A baby siblings research consortium study. Pediatrics, 128, e1–e8. CrossRef Ozonoff, S., Young, G. S., Carter, A., Messinger, D., Yirmiya, N., Zwaigenbaum, L., et al. (2011). Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: A baby siblings research consortium study. Pediatrics, 128, e1–e8. CrossRef
go back to reference Pickles, A. (1998). Generalized estimating equations. In P. Armitage, T. Colton (Eds.), The encyclopedia of biostatistics Vol 2 (pp. 1626–1637). New York: Wiley. Pickles, A. (1998). Generalized estimating equations. In P. Armitage, T. Colton (Eds.), The encyclopedia of biostatistics Vol 2 (pp. 1626–1637). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Povinelli, D. J., Bierschwale, D. T., & Cech, C. G. (1999). Comprehension of seeing as a referential act in young children, but not juvenile chimpanzees. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 37–60. CrossRef Povinelli, D. J., Bierschwale, D. T., & Cech, C. G. (1999). Comprehension of seeing as a referential act in young children, but not juvenile chimpanzees. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 37–60. CrossRef
go back to reference Presmanes, A. G., Walden, T. A., Stone, W. L., & Yoder, P. J. (2007). Effects of different attentional cues on responding to joint attention in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 133–144. PubMedCrossRef Presmanes, A. G., Walden, T. A., Stone, W. L., & Yoder, P. J. (2007). Effects of different attentional cues on responding to joint attention in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 133–144. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Risi, S., Lord, C., Gotham, K., Corsello, C., Chrysler, C., Szatmari, P., et al. (2006). Combining information from multiple sources in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1094–1103. PubMedCrossRef Risi, S., Lord, C., Gotham, K., Corsello, C., Chrysler, C., Szatmari, P., et al. (2006). Combining information from multiple sources in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1094–1103. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rogers, S. J. (2009). What are infant siblings teaching us about autism in infancy? Autism Research, 2, 125–137. PubMedCrossRef Rogers, S. J. (2009). What are infant siblings teaching us about autism in infancy? Autism Research, 2, 125–137. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003) SCQ: Social communication questionnaire. Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003) SCQ: Social communication questionnaire. Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Scaife, M., & Bruner, J. S. (1975). The capacity for joint visual attention in the infant. Nature, 253, 265–266. PubMedCrossRef Scaife, M., & Bruner, J. S. (1975). The capacity for joint visual attention in the infant. Nature, 253, 265–266. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Senju, A., & Csibra, G. (2008). Gaze following in human infants depends on communicative signals. Current Biology, 18, 668–671. PubMedCrossRef Senju, A., & Csibra, G. (2008). Gaze following in human infants depends on communicative signals. Current Biology, 18, 668–671. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Senju, A., Tojo, Y., Dairoku, H., & Hasegawa, T. (2004). Reflexive orienting in response to eye gaze and an arrow in children with and without autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 445–458. PubMedCrossRef Senju, A., Tojo, Y., Dairoku, H., & Hasegawa, T. (2004). Reflexive orienting in response to eye gaze and an arrow in children with and without autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 445–458. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Striano, T., Reid, V. M., & Hoehl, S. (2006). Neural mechanisms of joint attention in infancy. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 2819–2823. PubMedCrossRef Striano, T., Reid, V. M., & Hoehl, S. (2006). Neural mechanisms of joint attention in infancy. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 2819–2823. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Swettenham, J., Condie, S., Campbell, R., Milne, E., & Coleman, M. (2003). Does the perception of moving eyes trigger reflexive visual orienting in autism? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 358, 325–334. CrossRef Swettenham, J., Condie, S., Campbell, R., Milne, E., & Coleman, M. (2003). Does the perception of moving eyes trigger reflexive visual orienting in autism? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 358, 325–334. CrossRef
go back to reference Tomasello, M., Call, J., & Hare, B. (1998). Five primate species follow the visual gaze of conspecifics. Animal Behavior, 55, 1063–1069. CrossRef Tomasello, M., Call, J., & Hare, B. (1998). Five primate species follow the visual gaze of conspecifics. Animal Behavior, 55, 1063–1069. CrossRef
go back to reference Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Brain and Behavior Sciences, 28, 675–690. Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Brain and Behavior Sciences, 28, 675–690.
go back to reference Vivanti, G., McCormick, C., Young, G. S., Abucayan, F., Hatt, N., Nadig, A., et al. (2011). Intact and impaired mechanisms of action understanding in autism. Developmental Psychology, 47, 841–856. PubMedCrossRef Vivanti, G., McCormick, C., Young, G. S., Abucayan, F., Hatt, N., Nadig, A., et al. (2011). Intact and impaired mechanisms of action understanding in autism. Developmental Psychology, 47, 841–856. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD- 10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: WHO. World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD- 10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: WHO.
go back to reference Yirmiya, N., & Charman, T. (2010). The prodrome of autism: Early behavioral and biological signs, regression, peri- and post-natal development and genetics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 432–458. PubMedCrossRef Yirmiya, N., & Charman, T. (2010). The prodrome of autism: Early behavioral and biological signs, regression, peri- and post-natal development and genetics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 432–458. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yirmiya, N., Gamliel, I., Pilowsky, T., Feldman, R., Baron-Cohen, S., & Sigman, M. (2006). The development of siblings of children with autism at 4 and 14 months: Social engagement, communication, and cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 511–523. PubMedCrossRef Yirmiya, N., Gamliel, I., Pilowsky, T., Feldman, R., Baron-Cohen, S., & Sigman, M. (2006). The development of siblings of children with autism at 4 and 14 months: Social engagement, communication, and cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 511–523. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yoder, P., Stone, W. L., Walden, T., & Malesa, E. (2009). Predicting social impairment and ASD diagnosis in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1381–1391. PubMedCrossRef Yoder, P., Stone, W. L., Walden, T., & Malesa, E. (2009). Predicting social impairment and ASD diagnosis in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1381–1391. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Precursors to Social and Communication Difficulties in Infants At-Risk for Autism: Gaze Following and Attentional Engagement
Auteurs
Rachael Bedford
Mayada Elsabbagh
Teodora Gliga
Andrew Pickles
Atsushi Senju
Tony Charman
Mark H. Johnson
the BASIS team
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2012
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 10/2012
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1450-y