Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 12/2020

27-08-2020 | Original Paper

Positive Perceptions of Parenting and their Links to Theorized Core Emotional Needs

Auteurs: John P. Louis, Adam T. Davidson, George Lockwood, Alex Wood

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 12/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Central to the theory underpinning schema therapy is a hierarchically structured model where maladaptive and adaptive schemas are manifestations of higher order core emotional needs which emerge through specific parenting conditions. Despite widespread use in therapy, the hierarchical model of adaptive schemas has not been tested nor has it been linked to recollections of positive parenting patterns. In Study 1, both single and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis on Eastern (Singapore, n = 628; Kuala Lumpur, n = 229) and Western (United States, n = 214) samples tested the hierarchical structure of positive schemas and provided further evidence of four types of core emotional needs. They ran in parallel with the previously established four negative counterparts of unmet core emotional needs derived from other studies of second order maladaptive schemas. Since schemas theoretically develop during childhood, Study 2 explored links between positive recollections of parenting with the model of core emotional needs obtained from Study 1. Using samples with separate ratings for fathers and mothers from Manila (Philippines; n = 520, 538), Jakarta (Indonesia; n = 366, 383) and the United States (n = 204, 214), and utilizing structural equation modeling, statistically significant positive relationships were found between these higher order solutions of recollections of positive parenting patterns and the theorized four core emotional needs which were believed to be represented by these higher order adaptive schemas. This supported a core assumption of schema therapy.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Awang, Z. (2012). A handbook on SEM. Kota Bharu: UITM. Awang, Z. (2012). A handbook on SEM. Kota Bharu: UITM.
go back to reference Bach, B., Lockwood, G., & Young, J. E. (2018). A new look at the schema therapy model: organization and role of early maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 47(4), 328–349. PubMed Bach, B., Lockwood, G., & Young, J. E. (2018). A new look at the schema therapy model: organization and role of early maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 47(4), 328–349. PubMed
go back to reference Bach, B., Simonsen, E., Christoffersen, P., & Kriston, L. (2017). The Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3): psychometric properties and association with personality disorders in a Danish mixed sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 33, 134–143. Bach, B., Simonsen, E., Christoffersen, P., & Kriston, L. (2017). The Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3): psychometric properties and association with personality disorders in a Danish mixed sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 33, 134–143.
go back to reference Bamelis, L. L., Evers, S. M., Spinhoven, P., & Arntz, A. (2014). Results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 305–322. PubMed Bamelis, L. L., Evers, S. M., Spinhoven, P., & Arntz, A. (2014). Results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 305–322. PubMed
go back to reference Bennett, D. A. (2001). How can I deal with missing data in my study? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 25, 464–469. PubMed Bennett, D. A. (2001). How can I deal with missing data in my study? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 25, 464–469. PubMed
go back to reference Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, vol. 2: Separation. New York, NY: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, vol. 2: Separation. New York, NY: Basic Books.
go back to reference Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss, vol. 3: Loss, sadness and depresson. New York, NY: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss, vol. 3: Loss, sadness and depresson. New York, NY: Basic Books.
go back to reference Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. A. (2008). Internal working models in attachment relationships: Elaborating a central construct in attachment theory. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 102–127). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. A. (2008). Internal working models in attachment relationships: Elaborating a central construct in attachment theory. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 102–127). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.
go back to reference Emsley, R., Dunn, G., & White, I. R. (2010). Mediation and moderation of treatment effects in randomised controlled trials of complex interventions. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 19(3), 237–270. PubMed Emsley, R., Dunn, G., & White, I. R. (2010). Mediation and moderation of treatment effects in randomised controlled trials of complex interventions. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 19(3), 237–270. PubMed
go back to reference Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286–299. Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286–299.
go back to reference Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.
go back to reference Gilboa, A., & Marlatte, H. (2017). Neurobiology of schemas and schema-mediated memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21(8), 618–631. PubMed Gilboa, A., & Marlatte, H. (2017). Neurobiology of schemas and schema-mediated memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21(8), 618–631. PubMed
go back to reference Greenwald, A. G., Pickrell, J. E., & Farnham, S. D. (2002). Implicit partisanship: taking sides for no reason. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 367–379. PubMed Greenwald, A. G., Pickrell, J. E., & Farnham, S. D. (2002). Implicit partisanship: taking sides for no reason. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 367–379. PubMed
go back to reference Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
go back to reference Hawke, L. D., Provencher, M. D., & Parikh, S. V. (2013). Schema therapy for bipolar disorder: a conceptual model and future directions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148, 118–122. PubMed Hawke, L. D., Provencher, M. D., & Parikh, S. V. (2013). Schema therapy for bipolar disorder: a conceptual model and future directions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148, 118–122. PubMed
go back to reference Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Hedley, L. M., Wang, C. E., Holthe, H., Haugum, J. A., & Holte, A. (2005). The structure of maladaptive schemas: a confirmatory factor analysis and a psychometric evaluation of factor-derived scales. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(6), 627–644. Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Hedley, L. M., Wang, C. E., Holthe, H., Haugum, J. A., & Holte, A. (2005). The structure of maladaptive schemas: a confirmatory factor analysis and a psychometric evaluation of factor-derived scales. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(6), 627–644.
go back to reference Hong, Y. R., & Park, J. S. (2012). Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 55(12), 449–454. PubMedPubMedCentral Hong, Y. R., & Park, J. S. (2012). Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 55(12), 449–454. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.
go back to reference IBM Corp. (2015). IBM SPSS statistics for Windows (version 23.0) [computer software]. Armonk, NY: Author. IBM Corp. (2015). IBM SPSS statistics for Windows (version 23.0) [computer software]. Armonk, NY: Author.
go back to reference Imperatori, C., Innamorati, M., Lester, D., Continislo, M., Balsamo, M., Saggino, A., & Fabbricatore, M. (2017). The association between food addiction and early maladaptive schemas in overweight and obese women: a prelimeray investigation. Nutrients, 9(17), 1259. PubMedCentral Imperatori, C., Innamorati, M., Lester, D., Continislo, M., Balsamo, M., Saggino, A., & Fabbricatore, M. (2017). The association between food addiction and early maladaptive schemas in overweight and obese women: a prelimeray investigation. Nutrients, 9(17), 1259. PubMedCentral
go back to reference Jamshidian, M., & Jalal, S. (2010). Tests of homoscedasticity, normality, and missing completely at random for incomplete multivariate data. Psychometrika, 75, 649–674. PubMedPubMedCentral Jamshidian, M., & Jalal, S. (2010). Tests of homoscedasticity, normality, and missing completely at random for incomplete multivariate data. Psychometrika, 75, 649–674. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Johnson, J., & Wood, A. M. (2017). Integrating positive and clinical psychology: viewing human functioning as continua from positive to negative can benefit clinical assessment, interventions and understandings of resilience. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 335–349. Johnson, J., & Wood, A. M. (2017). Integrating positive and clinical psychology: viewing human functioning as continua from positive to negative can benefit clinical assessment, interventions and understandings of resilience. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 335–349.
go back to reference Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Kriston, L., Schafer, J., Jacob, G. A., Harter, M., & Holzel, L. P. (2013). Reliability and validity of the German version of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short form 3 (YSQ-S3). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29, 205–212. Kriston, L., Schafer, J., Jacob, G. A., Harter, M., & Holzel, L. P. (2013). Reliability and validity of the German version of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short form 3 (YSQ-S3). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29, 205–212.
go back to reference Ledesma, R. D., & Valero-Mora, P. (2007). Determining the number of factors to remain in EFA: an easy-to-use computer program for carrying out Parallel Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 12(2), 1–11. Ledesma, R. D., & Valero-Mora, P. (2007). Determining the number of factors to remain in EFA: an easy-to-use computer program for carrying out Parallel Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 12(2), 1–11.
go back to reference Lockwood, G., & Perris, P. (2012). A new look at core emotional needs. In J. Broersen & M. vanVreeswijk (Eds), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of schema therapy (pp. 41–66). Chichester: Wiley. Lockwood, G., & Perris, P. (2012). A new look at core emotional needs. In J. Broersen & M. vanVreeswijk (Eds), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of schema therapy (pp. 41–66). Chichester: Wiley.
go back to reference Louis, J. P., & Louis, K. M. (2015). Good enough parenting: An in-depth perspective on meeting core emotional needs and avoiding exasperation. New York: Morgan James Publishing. Louis, J. P., & Louis, K. M. (2015). Good enough parenting: An in-depth perspective on meeting core emotional needs and avoiding exasperation. New York: Morgan James Publishing.
go back to reference Louis, J. P., Wood, A., & Lockwood, G. (2018). Development and validation of the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory (PPSI) to complement the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI) for Schema Therapy (ST). Assessment, 1–21. Louis, J. P., Wood, A., & Lockwood, G. (2018). Development and validation of the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory (PPSI) to complement the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI) for Schema Therapy (ST). Assessment, 1–21.
go back to reference Louis, J. P., Wood, A., Lockwood, G., Ho, M. H. R., & Ferguson, E. (2018). Positive clinical psychology and ST: the development of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ) to complement the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3). Psychological Assessment, 30(9), 1199–1213. PubMed Louis, J. P., Wood, A., Lockwood, G., Ho, M. H. R., & Ferguson, E. (2018). Positive clinical psychology and ST: the development of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ) to complement the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3). Psychological Assessment, 30(9), 1199–1213. PubMed
go back to reference McKinney, C., & Kwan, J. W. (2018). Emerging adult perceptions of and preferences for parenting styles and associated psychological outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 39(9), 2491–2504. McKinney, C., & Kwan, J. W. (2018). Emerging adult perceptions of and preferences for parenting styles and associated psychological outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 39(9), 2491–2504.
go back to reference Milfont, T. L., & Fischer, R. (2010). Testing measurement invariance across groups: applications in cross-cultural research. International Journal of Psychological Research, 3(1), 111–121. Milfont, T. L., & Fischer, R. (2010). Testing measurement invariance across groups: applications in cross-cultural research. International Journal of Psychological Research, 3(1), 111–121.
go back to reference Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables, user’s guide, 8th ed. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables, user’s guide, 8th ed. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
go back to reference Nadort, M., Arntz, A., Smit, J. H., Giesen-Bloo, J., Eikelenboom, M., Spin- hoven, P., van Asselt, T., Wensing, W., & van Dyck, R. (2009). Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder with versus without crisis sup- port by the therapist outside office hours: a randomized trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 961–973. PubMed Nadort, M., Arntz, A., Smit, J. H., Giesen-Bloo, J., Eikelenboom, M., Spin- hoven, P., van Asselt, T., Wensing, W., & van Dyck, R. (2009). Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder with versus without crisis sup- port by the therapist outside office hours: a randomized trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 961–973. PubMed
go back to reference Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
go back to reference Jiyoung Park, J., Seungjae Lee, D., Shablack, H., Verduyn, P., Deldin, P., Ybarra, O., Jonides, J., & Kross, E. (2016). When perceptions defy reality: the relationships between depression and actual and perceived Facebook social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 200, 37–44. PubMed Jiyoung Park, J., Seungjae Lee, D., Shablack, H., Verduyn, P., Deldin, P., Ybarra, O., Jonides, J., & Kross, E. (2016). When perceptions defy reality: the relationships between depression and actual and perceived Facebook social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 200, 37–44. PubMed
go back to reference Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2010). Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic. Psychometrika, 75(2), 243–248. PubMedPubMedCentral Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2010). Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic. Psychometrika, 75(2), 243–248. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Schafer, J. L. (1999). Multiple imputation: a primer. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 8(1), 3–15. PubMed Schafer, J. L. (1999). Multiple imputation: a primer. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 8(1), 3–15. PubMed
go back to reference Sempertegui, G. A., Karreman, A., Arntz, A., & Bekker, M. H. (2013). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementations possibilities. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 426–447. PubMed Sempertegui, G. A., Karreman, A., Arntz, A., & Bekker, M. H. (2013). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementations possibilities. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 426–447. PubMed
go back to reference Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics, 6th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics, 6th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
go back to reference Thimm, J. C. (2010). Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five factor model perspective. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41(4), 373–380. PubMed Thimm, J. C. (2010). Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five factor model perspective. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41(4), 373–380. PubMed
go back to reference Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.
go back to reference Wampold, B. E., & Imel, Z. E. (2015). The great psychotherapy debate: The evidence for what makes psychotherapy work. New York, NY: Routledge. Wampold, B. E., & Imel, Z. E. (2015). The great psychotherapy debate: The evidence for what makes psychotherapy work. New York, NY: Routledge.
go back to reference Wampold, B. E., Mondin, G. W., Moody, M., Stich, F., Benson, K., & Ahn, H. N. (1997). A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: empiricially, “all must have prizes”. Psychological Bulletin, 122(3), 203. Wampold, B. E., Mondin, G. W., Moody, M., Stich, F., Benson, K., & Ahn, H. N. (1997). A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: empiricially, “all must have prizes”. Psychological Bulletin, 122(3), 203.
go back to reference Wang, C. E., Halvorsen, M., Eisemann, M., & Waterloo, K. (2010). Stability of dysfunctional attitudes and early maladaptive schemas: a 9-year follow-up study of clinically depressed subjects. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 389–396. PubMed Wang, C. E., Halvorsen, M., Eisemann, M., & Waterloo, K. (2010). Stability of dysfunctional attitudes and early maladaptive schemas: a 9-year follow-up study of clinically depressed subjects. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 389–396. PubMed
go back to reference Wirth, R. J., & Edwards, M. C. (2007). Item factor analysis: current approaches and future directions. Psychological Methods, 12, 58–79. PubMedPubMedCentral Wirth, R. J., & Edwards, M. C. (2007). Item factor analysis: current approaches and future directions. Psychological Methods, 12, 58–79. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Wood, A. M., & Tarrier, N. (2010). Positive clinical psychology: a new vision and strategy for integrated research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 819–829. PubMed Wood, A. M., & Tarrier, N. (2010). Positive clinical psychology: a new vision and strategy for integrated research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 819–829. PubMed
go back to reference Wood, A. & Johnson, J. (Eds) (2016). The Wiley handbook of positive clinical psychology. Chichester: Wiley. Wood, A. & Johnson, J. (Eds) (2016). The Wiley handbook of positive clinical psychology. Chichester: Wiley.
go back to reference Young, J. E. (1990). Practitioner’s resource series. Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange. Young, J. E. (1990). Practitioner’s resource series. Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.
go back to reference Young, J. E., & Brown, G. (2005). Young schema questionnaire: Short version 3. New York, NY: Cognitive Therapy Centre of New York. Young, J. E., & Brown, G. (2005). Young schema questionnaire: Short version 3. New York, NY: Cognitive Therapy Centre of New York.
go back to reference Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. NY: The Guilford Press. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. NY: The Guilford Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
Positive Perceptions of Parenting and their Links to Theorized Core Emotional Needs
Auteurs
John P. Louis
Adam T. Davidson
George Lockwood
Alex Wood
Publicatiedatum
27-08-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 12/2020
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01807-0

Andere artikelen Uitgave 12/2020

Journal of Child and Family Studies 12/2020 Naar de uitgave