Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 1-2/2004

01-12-2004 | Original Article

Positive facial expressions are recognized faster than negative facial expressions, but why?

Auteurs: Jukka M. Leppänen, Jari K. Hietanen

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 1-2/2004

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Three experiments examined the recognition speed advantage for happy faces. The results replicated earlier findings by showing that positive (happy) facial expressions were recognized faster than negative (disgusted or sad) facial expressions (Experiments 1 and 2). In addition, the results showed that this effect was evident even when low-level physical differences between positive and negative faces were controlled by using schematic faces (Experiment 2), and that the effect was not attributable to an artifact arising from facilitated recognition of a single feature in the happy faces (up-turned mouth line, Experiment 3). Together, these results suggest that the happy face advantage may reflect a higher-level asymmetry in the recognition and categorization of emotionally positive and negative signals.
Literatuur
go back to reference Adolphs, R. (2002) Recognizing emotion from facial expressions: Psychological and neurological mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1, 21–62. Adolphs, R. (2002) Recognizing emotion from facial expressions: Psychological and neurological mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1, 21–62.
go back to reference Billings, L. S., Harrison, D. W., & Alden, J. D. (1993). Age differences among women in the functional asymmetry for bias in facial affect perception. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 317–320. Billings, L. S., Harrison, D. W., & Alden, J. D. (1993). Age differences among women in the functional asymmetry for bias in facial affect perception. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 317–320.
go back to reference Bond, N. W., & Siddle, D. A. T. (1996). The preparedness account of social phobia: Some data and alternative explanations. In R. M. Rapee (Ed.), Current controversies in the anxiety disorders (pp. 291–316). London: Guilford Press. Bond, N. W., & Siddle, D. A. T. (1996). The preparedness account of social phobia: Some data and alternative explanations. In R. M. Rapee (Ed.), Current controversies in the anxiety disorders (pp. 291–316). London: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Calder, A. J., Young, A. W., Keane, J., & Dean, M. (2000). Configural information in facial expression perception . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 527–551. PubMed Calder, A. J., Young, A. W., Keane, J., & Dean, M. (2000). Configural information in facial expression perception . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 527–551. PubMed
go back to reference Cohen, J. D., MacWhinney, B., Flatt M., & Provost, J. (1993). PsyScope: A new graphic interactive environment for designing psychology experiments. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 25, 257–271. Cohen, J. D., MacWhinney, B., Flatt M., & Provost, J. (1993). PsyScope: A new graphic interactive environment for designing psychology experiments. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 25, 257–271.
go back to reference Crews, W. D., & Harrison, D. W. (1994). Cerebral asymmetry in facial affect perception by women: Neuropsychological effects of depressive mood. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 1667–1679. PubMed Crews, W. D., & Harrison, D. W. (1994). Cerebral asymmetry in facial affect perception by women: Neuropsychological effects of depressive mood. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 1667–1679. PubMed
go back to reference Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7, 181–185. Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7, 181–185.
go back to reference Ducci, L. (1981). Reaction times in the recognition of facial expressions of emotion. Italian Journal of Psychology, 8, 183–193. Ducci, L. (1981). Reaction times in the recognition of facial expressions of emotion. Italian Journal of Psychology, 8, 183–193.
go back to reference Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. J. (1993). Voluntary smiling changes regional brain activity. Psychological Science, 4, 342–335. Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. J. (1993). Voluntary smiling changes regional brain activity. Psychological Science, 4, 342–335.
go back to reference Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
go back to reference Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain physiology: II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 342–353. PubMed Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain physiology: II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 342–353. PubMed
go back to reference Esteves, F., & Öhman, A. (1993). Masking the face: Recognition of emotional facial expressions as a function of the parameters of backward masking. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 34, 1–18. PubMed Esteves, F., & Öhman, A. (1993). Masking the face: Recognition of emotional facial expressions as a function of the parameters of backward masking. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 34, 1–18. PubMed
go back to reference Fabre-Thorpe, M., Delorme, A., Marlot, C., & Thorpe, S. (2001). A limit to the speed of processing in ultra-rapid visual categorization of novel natural scenes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 171–180. PubMed Fabre-Thorpe, M., Delorme, A., Marlot, C., & Thorpe, S. (2001). A limit to the speed of processing in ultra-rapid visual categorization of novel natural scenes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 171–180. PubMed
go back to reference Feyereisen, P., Malet, C., & Martin, Y. (1986). Is the faster processing of expressions of happiness modality-specific? In H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, & A. Young (Eds.), Aspects of face processing (pp. 349–355). Boston: Martinus Nijhoff. Feyereisen, P., Malet, C., & Martin, Y. (1986). Is the faster processing of expressions of happiness modality-specific? In H. D. Ellis, M. A. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, & A. Young (Eds.), Aspects of face processing (pp. 349–355). Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
go back to reference Fox, E., Lester, V., Russo, R., Bowles, R. J., Pichler, A., & Dutton K. (2000). Facial expressions of emotions: Are angry faces detected more efficiently? Cognition and Emotion, 14, 61–92. CrossRef Fox, E., Lester, V., Russo, R., Bowles, R. J., Pichler, A., & Dutton K. (2000). Facial expressions of emotions: Are angry faces detected more efficiently? Cognition and Emotion, 14, 61–92. CrossRef
go back to reference Frank, M., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1993). Behavioral markers and recognizability of the smile of enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 83–93. PubMed Frank, M., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1993). Behavioral markers and recognizability of the smile of enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 83–93. PubMed
go back to reference Hanaya, M. (1992). Perception of facial expressions: Effect of facial angle on emotion category effect. Tohoku Psychologica Folia, 52, 33–36. Hanaya, M. (1992). Perception of facial expressions: Effect of facial angle on emotion category effect. Tohoku Psychologica Folia, 52, 33–36.
go back to reference Hansen, C.H., & Hansen, R.D. (1988). Finding the face in the crowd: An anger superiority effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 917–924. PubMed Hansen, C.H., & Hansen, R.D. (1988). Finding the face in the crowd: An anger superiority effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 917–924. PubMed
go back to reference Harrison, D. W., Corelczenko, P. M., & Cook, J. (1990). Sex differences in the functional asymmetry for facial affect perception. International Journal of Neuroscience, 52, 11–16. PubMed Harrison, D. W., Corelczenko, P. M., & Cook, J. (1990). Sex differences in the functional asymmetry for facial affect perception. International Journal of Neuroscience, 52, 11–16. PubMed
go back to reference Hess, U., Blairy, S., & Kleck, R. E. (1997). The intensity of emotional facial expressions and decoding accuracy. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21, 241–257. CrossRef Hess, U., Blairy, S., & Kleck, R. E. (1997). The intensity of emotional facial expressions and decoding accuracy. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21, 241–257. CrossRef
go back to reference Howell, D. C. (1987). Statistical methods for psychology. Boston: PWS-Kent. Howell, D. C. (1987). Statistical methods for psychology. Boston: PWS-Kent.
go back to reference Hugdahl, K., Iversen, P. M., & Johnsen, B. H. (1993). Laterality for facial expressions: Does the sex of the subjects interact with the sex of the stimulus face? Cortex, 29, 325–331. PubMed Hugdahl, K., Iversen, P. M., & Johnsen, B. H. (1993). Laterality for facial expressions: Does the sex of the subjects interact with the sex of the stimulus face? Cortex, 29, 325–331. PubMed
go back to reference Johnston, P. J., Katsikitis, M., & Carr, V. J. (2001). A generalised deficit can account for problems in facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Biological Psychology, 58, 203–227. PubMed Johnston, P. J., Katsikitis, M., & Carr, V. J. (2001). A generalised deficit can account for problems in facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Biological Psychology, 58, 203–227. PubMed
go back to reference Kirita, T., & Endo, M. (1995). Happy face advantage in recognizing facial expressions. Acta Psychologica, 89, 149–163. CrossRef Kirita, T., & Endo, M. (1995). Happy face advantage in recognizing facial expressions. Acta Psychologica, 89, 149–163. CrossRef
go back to reference Lehr, D. J., Bergum, B. O., & Standing, T. E. (1966). Response latency as a function of stimulus affect and presentation order. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 23, 1111–1116. PubMed Lehr, D. J., Bergum, B. O., & Standing, T. E. (1966). Response latency as a function of stimulus affect and presentation order. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 23, 1111–1116. PubMed
go back to reference Leppänen, J. M., & Hietanen, J. K. (in press). Affect and face perception: Odors modulate the recognition advantage of happy faces. Emotion. Leppänen, J. M., & Hietanen, J. K. (in press). Affect and face perception: Odors modulate the recognition advantage of happy faces. Emotion.
go back to reference Lundqvist, D., Esteves, F., & Öhman, A. (1999). The face of wrath: Critical features for conveying facial threat. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 691–711. CrossRef Lundqvist, D., Esteves, F., & Öhman, A. (1999). The face of wrath: Critical features for conveying facial threat. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 691–711. CrossRef
go back to reference Mack, A., & Rock, I. (1998). Inattentional blindness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mack, A., & Rock, I. (1998). Inattentional blindness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
go back to reference Matlin, M. W., & Stang, D. J. (1978). The Pollyanna principle: Selectivity in language, memory, and thought. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman. Matlin, M. W., & Stang, D. J. (1978). The Pollyanna principle: Selectivity in language, memory, and thought. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman.
go back to reference McClelland, J. L. (1979). On the time relations of mental processes: An examination of systems of processes in cascade. Psychological Review, 86, 287–330. CrossRef McClelland, J. L. (1979). On the time relations of mental processes: An examination of systems of processes in cascade. Psychological Review, 86, 287–330. CrossRef
go back to reference McClelland, J. L., & Rumelhart, D. E. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception. I. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375–407. CrossRef McClelland, J. L., & Rumelhart, D. E. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception. I. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375–407. CrossRef
go back to reference Öhman, A., Lundqvist, D., & Esteves, F. (2001). The face in the crowd revisited: A threat advantage with schematic stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 381–396. PubMed Öhman, A., Lundqvist, D., & Esteves, F. (2001). The face in the crowd revisited: A threat advantage with schematic stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 381–396. PubMed
go back to reference Osgood C. E., & Hoosain, R. (1983). Pollyanna II: Two types of negativity. The Journal of Psychology, 113, 151–160. Osgood C. E., & Hoosain, R. (1983). Pollyanna II: Two types of negativity. The Journal of Psychology, 113, 151–160.
go back to reference Peeters, G., & Czapinski, J. (1990). Positive-negative asymmetry in evaluations: The distinction between affective and informational negativity effects . European Review of Social Psychology, 1, 33–60. Peeters, G., & Czapinski, J. (1990). Positive-negative asymmetry in evaluations: The distinction between affective and informational negativity effects . European Review of Social Psychology, 1, 33–60.
go back to reference Pratto, F., & John, O. P. (1991). Automatic vigilance: The attention-grabbing power of negative social information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 380–391. PubMed Pratto, F., & John, O. P. (1991). Automatic vigilance: The attention-grabbing power of negative social information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 380–391. PubMed
go back to reference Sears, D. O. (1983). The person-positivity bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 233–250. CrossRef Sears, D. O. (1983). The person-positivity bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 233–250. CrossRef
go back to reference Stalans, L., & Wedding, D. (1985). Superiority of the left hemisphere in the recognition of emotional faces. International Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 219–233. PubMed Stalans, L., & Wedding, D. (1985). Superiority of the left hemisphere in the recognition of emotional faces. International Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 219–233. PubMed
go back to reference Stanners, R. F., Byrd, D. M., & Gabriel, R. (1985). The time it takes to identify facial expressions: Effects of age, gender of subject, sex of sender, and type of expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 9, 201–213. Stanners, R. F., Byrd, D. M., & Gabriel, R. (1985). The time it takes to identify facial expressions: Effects of age, gender of subject, sex of sender, and type of expressions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 9, 201–213.
go back to reference Stenberg, G., Wiking, S., & Dahl, M. (1998). Judging words at face value: Interference in word processing reveals automatic processing of affective facial expressions. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 755–782. CrossRef Stenberg, G., Wiking, S., & Dahl, M. (1998). Judging words at face value: Interference in word processing reveals automatic processing of affective facial expressions. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 755–782. CrossRef
go back to reference Suzuki, S., & Cavanagh, P. (1995). Facial organization blocks access to low-level features: An object inferiority effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 901–913. CrossRef Suzuki, S., & Cavanagh, P. (1995). Facial organization blocks access to low-level features: An object inferiority effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 901–913. CrossRef
go back to reference Taylor, S. E. (1991). Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events: The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 67–85. PubMed Taylor, S. E. (1991). Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events: The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 67–85. PubMed
go back to reference Wagner, H. L. (1993). On measuring performance in category judgment studies of nonverbal behavior. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 17, 3–28. Wagner, H. L. (1993). On measuring performance in category judgment studies of nonverbal behavior. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 17, 3–28.
go back to reference White, M. (1995). Preattentive analysis of facial expressions. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 439–460. White, M. (1995). Preattentive analysis of facial expressions. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 439–460.
Metagegevens
Titel
Positive facial expressions are recognized faster than negative facial expressions, but why?
Auteurs
Jukka M. Leppänen
Jari K. Hietanen
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2004
Uitgeverij
Springer-Verlag
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 1-2/2004
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-003-0157-2