## Introduction

## Theoretical background

### Prime and priming effect

### Prime and lying nexus: the case of politician-priming

### Research design and hypothesis

## Experiment 1

### Sample

Baseline (no prime effect) | Non-politician-prime (clergymen-prime effect) | Politician-prime (politician-prime effect) | |
---|---|---|---|

N
| 41 | 34 | 35 |

Age | |||

Means | 20.43 | 18.85 | 20.14 |

Std. dev | 0.10 | 1.44 | 0.65 |

Gender ratio | |||

Females (%) | 68.29 | 50.00 | 54.25 |

Males (%) | 31.71 | 50.00 | 45.75 |

### Design and procedure

baseline, in which participants received no prime effect;politician-prime, in which participants received politician-prime effect; and finallyNon-politician-prime, in which participants received clergy-prime effect.

### Probability of lying

### Manipulation of prime conditions

“Please use the provided sheet of paper to describe the characteristics of politicians. You are free to express your opinions and comment politicians’ characteristics in your own way. This sheet of paper belongs to you and will not be collected by the administrator, so the anonymity of your views is guaranteed. You are encouraged to write as many characteristics as you can on this sheet of paper. You have five minutes for this task”.

## Findings of Experiment 1

### Reported outcomes of the three conditions

### Evaluation of prime effect

### Evaluation of personal characters

_{diff}= 0.264), whereas politician-prime’s ratings were lower than the middle point (M

_{diff}= − 0.215).

## Experiment 2—part A (2A)

### Sample

Sarkozy-prime | Hollande-prime | |
---|---|---|

N
| 36 | 36 |

Age | ||

Means | 21.73 | 20.36 |

Std. dev | 1.23 | 1.02 |

Gender ratio | ||

Females (%) | 54.25 | 38.84 |

Males (%) | 45.75 | 61.16 |

### Design and procedure

### Manipulation of prime conditions

“Please use the provided sheet of paper to describe the characteristics of President Sarkozy. You are free to express your opinions and comment Sarkozy’ characteristics in your own way. Your opinions and comment should be about Sarkozy. This sheet of paper belongs to you and will not be collected by the administrator, so the anonymity of your views is guaranteed. You are encouraged to write as many characteristics as you can on this sheet of paper. You have five minutes for this task”.

## Findings of experiment 2—part A (2A)

### Reported outcomes of two conditions

_{diff}(#5) = 5.55%; probability

_{diff}(#6) = 30.55%], implying signs of lying, i.e., participants in Sarkozy-prime lied when reporting their dice readings (see Fig. 2 for details).

^{2}= 13.14, p = 0.022, p < 0.05), indicating that participants in Sarkozy-prime were more inclined to report bigger dice readings (more lying behavior) whereas participants in Hollande-prime did not show this inclination.

## Experiment 2—part B (2B)

### Sample

Sarkozy-prime | Republicans-prime (right wing party) | |
---|---|---|

N
| 36 | 36 |

Age | ||

Means | 21.53 | 20.50 |

Std. dev | 1.05 | 0.23 |

Gender ratio | ||

Females (%) | 58.83 | 36.11 |

Males (%) | 41.17 | 63.89 |

### Design and procedure

### Manipulation of prime conditions

“Please use the provided sheet of paper to describe the characteristics of The Republicans Party. You are free to express your opinions and comment in your own way. Your opinions and comment should be about The Republicans Party. This sheet of paper belongs to you and will not be collected by the administrator, so the anonymity of your views is guaranteed. You are encouraged to write as many characteristics as you can on this sheet of paper. You have five minutes for this task”.