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01-11-2013 | Commentary | Uitgave 9/2013

Quality of Life Research 9/2013

Pitfalls in subgroup analysis based on growth mixture models: a commentary on van Leeuwen et al. (2012)

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 9/2013
Cameron N. McIntosh
Belangrijke opmerkingen

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s11136-013-0385-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



This article is a brief commentary in response to “van Leeuwen et al. (Qual Life Res 21:1499–1508, 2012)”

Methods and results

The commentary argues that in the context of mixture modeling, assigning individuals to specific subgroups for conducting a secondary set of analyses ignores the original uncertainty in group membership, thereby biasing any subsequent results and inference.


Alternative approaches to subgroup analysis that attempt to preserve uncertainty in group membership are discussed and illustrated.

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Extra materiaal
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 16 kb): Modifiable Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for computing input statistics (average, adjusted, and log-transformed probabilities of class membership) for implementation of the three-step procedure
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