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Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 1/2017

29-10-2015 | Original Article

Physiological threat responses predict number processing

Auteurs: Annika Scholl, Korbinian Moeller, Daan Scheepers, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Kai Sassenberg

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 1/2017

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Abstract

Being able to adequately process numbers is a key competency in everyday life. Yet, self-reported negative affective responses towards numbers are known to deteriorate numerical performance. Here, we investigated how physiological threat responses predict numerical performance. Physiological responses reflect whether individuals evaluate a task as exceeding or matching their resources and in turn experience either threat or challenge, which influences subsequent performance. We hypothesized that, the more individuals respond to a numerical task with physiological threat, the worse they would perform. Results of an experiment with cardiovascular indicators of threat/challenge corroborated this expectation. The findings thereby contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanism underlying the influence of negative affective responses towards numbers on numerical performance.
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1
The original sample included a total of sixty-one participants. However, due to technical problems, the complete set of physiological measures was only assessed for the reported fifty participants. Please note that data collection took place in two waves (i.e., during two separate weeks), as optimal sample size was not reached and gender distribution was biased in the first wave. Hence, we may have collected data from different populations. There was only a marginal difference in reaction times between the two samples for small range triplets, t(39) = 1.87, p = .070 (M first wave = 1937.73, SD = 1328.78; M second wave = 2603.65, SD = 949.32), but not for all other types of triplets. To control for potential differences between these two data sets, all measures included in the main analyses (i.e., correlations) were z-standardized. Unless otherwise reported, point in time of data collection (i.e., first vs. second wave) did not interact with the cardiovascular measures in predicting performance on the math task participants. Please note that data collection took place in two waves (i.e., during two separate weeks), as optimal sample size was not reached and gender distribution was biased in the first wave. Hence, we may have collected data from different populations. There was only a marginal difference in reaction times between the two samples for small range triplets, t(39) = 1.87, p = .070 (M first wave = 1937.73, SD = 1328.78; M second wave = 2603.65, SD = 949.32), but not for all other types of triplets. To control for potential differences between these two data sets, all measures included in the main analyses (i.e., correlations) were z-standardized. Unless otherwise reported, point in time of data collection (i.e., first vs. second wave) did not interact with the cardiovascular measures in predicting performance on the math task.
 
2
Applying different outlier criteria (e.g., 2.5 or 3 SDs) as well as including the outliers with their original values did not change results substantially.
 
3
Including this one outlier only changed the correlation between physiological indicators and IBSD, all other correlations between physiological indicators and performance remained.
 
4
There were no interactions between threat-challenge index (TCI) and participant gender or point in time of data collection (i.e., first vs. second wave), respectively. The same is the case for total peripheral resistance (TPR). However, there was a gender x cardiac output (CO) interaction in predicting errors for incorrectly bisected triplets with a small distance (IBSD) and incorrectly bisected triplets with a large distance (IBLD). Further examination of this effect indicated that this interaction seemed to result from the point in data collection (wave 1 included almost exclusively females, wave 2 included males and females), rather than from gender itself: In the first wave (t1), female participants showed no significant correlations of CO with IBSD, r(15)female, t1 = .36, and CO with IBLD, r(15)female, t1 = −.07. However, in the second wave (t2), female participants’ correlations of CO with IBSD, r(7)female, t2 = −.45, and CO with IBLD, r(7)female, t2 = −.69, showed a pattern identical to that observed for male participants at t2, with correlations of CO with IBSD, r(27)male, t2 = −.34, and CO with IBLD, r(27) male, t2 = −.48. We assume the pattern of the second wave of data collection to be the more reliable measurement, given the bigger sample, and that evidence for task engagement (i.e. changes in PEP and HR) were clearest there. Future research, however, might examine potential gender effects—especially if gender and stereotypic expectations (e.g., with regard to worse math performance) are made salient before performing a task (see, e.g., Derks et al., 2011).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Physiological threat responses predict number processing
Auteurs
Annika Scholl
Korbinian Moeller
Daan Scheepers
Hans-Christoph Nuerk
Kai Sassenberg
Publicatiedatum
29-10-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 1/2017
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-015-0719-0

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