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Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 2/2009

01-04-2009 | Original Article

Phenomenological Characteristics of Attentional Biases Towards Threat: A Critical Review

Auteurs: Josh M. Cisler, Amy K. Bacon, Nathan L. Williams

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 2/2009

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Abstract

Although research has consistently revealed the presence of a general attentional bias towards threat, empirical and theoretical ambiguity exists in determining whether attentional biases are comprised of facilitated attention to threat, difficulty in disengagement from threat, or both, as well as whether attentional biases reflect automatic or strategic processes. This paper reviews empirical investigations across four common assessment tasks: the Stroop (masked and unmasked), dot probe, visual search, and the Posner tasks. Although the review finds inconsistencies both within and between assessment tasks, the evidence suggests that attentional biases towards threat are comprised of each of the phenomenological characteristics addressed in this paper. Contemporary theoretical models of attentional biases in anxiety are summarized and critically reviewed in light of the current evidence. Suggestions for future research are addressed, including a need to investigate the psychometric properties of the assessment tasks, to utilize consistent theoretically driven operationalizations of attentional biases, and to provide a temporal description of the characteristics of attentional biases towards threat.
Voetnoten
1
Lipp and Waters (2007) did not also test for facilitated attention. Therefore, their results do only demonstrate difficulty in disengagement but they do not rule out facilitated attention.
 
2
Flykt and Caldara (2006) did not also test for difficulty in disengagement. Therefore, their results do only demonstrate facilitated attention but they do not rule out difficulty in disengagement.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Phenomenological Characteristics of Attentional Biases Towards Threat: A Critical Review
Auteurs
Josh M. Cisler
Amy K. Bacon
Nathan L. Williams
Publicatiedatum
01-04-2009
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 2/2009
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-007-9161-y