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Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 2/2021

26-11-2019 | Original Article

Perspective in the conceptualization of categories

Auteurs: Anna M. Borghi, Lawrence Barsalou

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 2/2021

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Abstract

The ability to differently perceive and represent entities depending on their perspective is crucial for humans. We report five experiments that investigate how the different perspectives adopted while experiencing entities are reflected in conceptualizations (towards vs. away, near vs. far, beside vs. above, inside vs. outside and vision vs. audition vs. touch). Different groups of participants generated object properties while imagining the same scenario from different perspectives (e.g. entities coming toward them/going away from them while on a highway overpass). If conceptualizations have perspectives, then participants should produce features from a perspective entrenched in memory that reflects typical interactions with objects, independently of their assigned perspective (entrenched perspective). In addition, the perspective adopted in a given experiment should influence the properties generated (situated perspective). Results across the experiments indicate that conceptualizations contain both entrenched and situational perspectives. While entrenched perspectives emerge from canonical actions typically performed with objects, locations and entities, situational perspectives reflect online adaptations to current task contexts. The implications of the interplay between entrenched and situational perspectives for grounded cognition are discussed.
Voetnoten
1
Because a neutral baseline was not included, we cannot determine whether toward instructions increased the presence of toward features, whether away instructions increased the presence of away features, or both. Thus, the presence of a situated perspective effect simply indicates that the toward–away task manipulation altered property generation in the predicted direction (given our directional one-tailed tests). Similar assumptions underlie the task manipulations in later experiments.
 
2
In the participants analysis, \( P_{{\bar{x}}} \)ΔT–A is the mean value across the 16 PiΔT–A. In the concepts analysis, the analogous mean, \( C_{{\bar{x}}} \)ΔT–A, is always identical to \( P_{{\bar{x}}} \)ΔT–A in the participants analysis, and so is not shown. These conventions are followed in all later analyses and experiments.
 
3
\( P_{{\overline{{{\text{T}} - {\text{A}}}} }} \) indicates the average difference in the \( P_{{\bar{x}}} \)ΔT–A between the toward and away groups. In the concepts analysis, the analogous average difference, \( C_{{\overline{{{\text{T}} - {\text{A}}}} }} \), is always identical to \( P_{{\overline{{{\text{T}} - {\text{A}}}} }} \) in the participants analysis, and so is not shown. These conventions are followed in all later analyses and experiments.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Perspective in the conceptualization of categories
Auteurs
Anna M. Borghi
Lawrence Barsalou
Publicatiedatum
26-11-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 2/2021
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01269-0

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