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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 3/2021

02-01-2021

Personality Pathology and Substance Misuse in Later Life: Perspectives from Interviewer-, Self-, and Informant-Reports

Auteurs: Sarah E. Paul, Rachel P. Winograd, Thomas F. Oltmanns

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 3/2021

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Abstract

Research indicates a robust association between personality and substance use and misuse. The high prevalence and pervasive detrimental impacts of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and smoking of tobacco necessitate more studies designed to identify factors closely associated with these outcomes in specific populations. The analyses reported in the present paper concern the relative utilities of five measures of personality and personality pathology rated by three sources (self, informant, and interviewer) in predicting AUD and regular smoking in a representative sample of 987 older adults, an understudied and uniquely vulnerable population. All measures and sources contributed to the predictions, with notable parallels as well as some important differences identified across substances and sources of information. In particular, low agreeableness robustly predicted AUD and smoking across self- and informant-reports. High interviewer-rated borderline personality pathology also strongly predicted AUD. Model fit indices suggested that measures of personality and personality pathology have stronger utility in predicting AUD as compared to regular smoking. These findings have important implications for the assessment of older adults in research and clinical settings and for the understanding of enduring risk factors for substance misuse later in life. Multi-source personality information is valuable for generating a complete picture of the relationship between personality and substance misuse.

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1
It should be noted that these results are sometimes non-significant (e.g., Kotov et al. 2010).
 
2
Although it would have been useful to examine late-onset AUD (i.e., meeting criteria for the first time at FU10) or recurrent AUD (i.e., meeting criteria in the past and at FU10, but not meeting criteria at some point in between), we were unfortunately underpowered to do so (e.g., only 14 individuals experienced late-onset AUD).
 
3
We also calculated the McFadden pseudo R2 (McFadden 1973), which is straightforward to interpret and easily adjusted to compensate for additional parameters (Mittlböck and Heinzl 2004) albeit subject to debate regarding validity (for a review, see Hemmert et al. 2018). Results of these calculations are reported in the Appendix.
 
4
Computation of NRMSE involves calculating the mean and variance over all missing data points (see Oba et al. 2003).
 
5
Post hoc examinations of potential effects of the informant relationship on informant-reported personality and personality pathology associations with AUD status did not yield any robust findings. Specifically, when the degree to which the informant reported knowing the participant (i.e., 5-point Likert-type scale from “Not well” to “Better than anyone else) was interacted with informant-rated personality and, separately, informant-rated personality pathology one effect was found. The better the informants reported knowing the participants, the less negative the association was between Agreeableness and current AUD (p = 0.04), but no other significant attenuations or increases were identified. Similarly, when analyzing data exclusively in participants whose informants reported knowing the participants either “Very well” or “Better than anyone else,” the only significant effect was found for Antisocial personality pathology and former AUD (OR = 1.65, p = 0.007). The same effect was found in the full dataset but was statistically significant only prior to correction for multiple testing (Table 5).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Personality Pathology and Substance Misuse in Later Life: Perspectives from Interviewer-, Self-, and Informant-Reports
Auteurs
Sarah E. Paul
Rachel P. Winograd
Thomas F. Oltmanns
Publicatiedatum
02-01-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 3/2021
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-020-09862-z