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Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 5/2014

01-07-2014

Persistent Heightened Cortisol Awakening Response and Adolescent Internalizing Symptoms: A 3-year Longitudinal Community Study

Auteurs: Stefanie A. Nelemans, William W. Hale III, Susan J. T. Branje, Pol A. C. van Lier, Lucres M. C. Jansen, Evelien Platje, Tom Frijns, Hans M. Koot, Wim H. J. Meeus

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 5/2014

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Abstract

An atypical Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) has been related to adult anxiety and depression, but little is known about the association between long-term atypical CAR and adolescent anxiety and depression. This study aimed to longitudinally identify subgroups of adolescents with distinct levels of CAR (i.e., adolescents with and without persistent atypical CAR) and to examine their development of anxiety and depressive symptoms over 3 successive years. A community sample of 184 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.99 at T1, 57 % boys) completed annual salivary cortisol assessments at home at time of awakening, and 30 and 60 min post-awakening (i.e., CAR) for 3 successive years. Adolescents also reported annually on their anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. Latent Class Growth Analysis suggested two subgroups of adolescents with respect to CAR: a “low” group with stable low levels of AUCg (Area Under the Curve with respect to the ground) over time and a “high” group with high and increasing levels of AUCg over time. Controlling for sex, the high and low CAR groups significantly differed in depressive symptoms only, but none of the anxiety disorder symptoms. More specifically, adolescents in the high CAR group showed significantly higher mean levels of depressive symptoms over time compared to adolescents in the low CAR group. These results suggest that persistent heightened CAR is a more consistent, yet modest, correlate of adolescent depressive symptoms than anxiety disorder symptoms.
Voetnoten
1
It is noted, for example, by Spijker and Van Rossum (2012) that “it is complex to properly measure and assess the functioning of the HPA axis in humans” (p. 179). They also note that one of the most common approaches to evaluate HPA axis functioning is the measurement of basal cortisol levels in response to awakening, as a model for an endogenous stress response. Although CAR is more than simply a measure of HPA axis activity, we would refer the reader to Clow et al. (2010) and Fries et al. (2009) for a more detailed discussion of this issue, since this is beyond the scope of the present article.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Persistent Heightened Cortisol Awakening Response and Adolescent Internalizing Symptoms: A 3-year Longitudinal Community Study
Auteurs
Stefanie A. Nelemans
William W. Hale III
Susan J. T. Branje
Pol A. C. van Lier
Lucres M. C. Jansen
Evelien Platje
Tom Frijns
Hans M. Koot
Wim H. J. Meeus
Publicatiedatum
01-07-2014
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 5/2014
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9820-2