Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
All three authors contributed equally to the article and they shared the first authorship: Kevin Binning, Ming-Te Wang, Jamie Amemiya.
Research proposing that mindset interventions promote student achievement has been conducted at a frenetic pace nationwide in the United States, with many studies yielding mixed results. The present study explores the hypothesis that mindset interventions are beneficial for students only under specific circumstances. Using a randomized controlled trial with student-level random assignment within two public schools (School 1: n = 198 seventh-graders, 73% Black, 27% White, 53% male; School 2: n = 400 ninth-graders, 98% White, 2% Black, 52% male), this trial conceptually integrated elements from three evidence-based mindset interventions. It then examined two theoretically driven moderators of student performance following the transition to middle or high school: students’ racial backgrounds and students’ educational expectations. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for a particular subset of students—Black students with high educational expectations—resulting in higher grades over the course of the year. Among students with low educational expectations (regardless of race), the intervention did not impact grades. For White students with high educational expectations, the control activities actually benefitted grades more than the mindset intervention. Both theoretical and practical implications for mindset research are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Amemiya, J., & Wang, M.-T. (2018). African American adolescents’ gender and perceived school climate moderate how academic coping relates to achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 69, 127–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2018.05.001. CrossRefPubMed
Baraldi, A. N., & Enders, C. K. (2010). An introduction to modern missing data analyses. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 5–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2009.10.001. CrossRefPubMed
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497. CrossRefPubMed
Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2009). The transition to high school as a developmental process among multiethnic urban youth. Child Development, 80, 356–376. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01265.x. CrossRefPubMed
Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78, 246–263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00995.x. CrossRefPubMed
Cohen, G. L., & Sherman, D. K. (2014). The psychology of change: self-affirmation and social psychological intervention. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 333–371. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115137. CrossRefPubMed
Durik, A. M., Shechter, O. G., Noh, M., Rozek, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2015). What if I can’t? Success expectancies moderate the effects of utility value information on situational interest and performance. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 104–118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-014-9419-0. CrossRef
Dweck, C. S. (2017). The journey to children’s mindsets-and beyond. Child Development Perspectives, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12225.
Dweck, C. S., Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2011). Academic tenacity: mindset and skills that promote long-term learning (pp. 1-43). Seattle: Gates Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: the impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48, 90–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.90. CrossRefPubMed
Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2011). Schools as developmental contexts during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 225–241. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00725.x. CrossRef
Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2013). Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds), Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd edn., pp. 125–153). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
García Coll, C., Crnic, K., Lamberty, G., Wasik, B. H., Jenkins, R., Garcia, H. V., & McAdoo, H. P. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891–1914. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01834.x. CrossRefPubMed
Goyer, J. P., Garcia, J., Purdie-vaughns, V., Binning, K. R., Cook, J. E., & Reeves, S. L., Apfel, N., Taborsky-Barba, S., Sherman, D. K., & Cohen, G. L. (2017). Self-affirmation facilitates minority middle schoolers’ progress along college trajectories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(29), 7594–7599. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1617923114.
Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying achievement goals and their impact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 541–553. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.521. CrossRefPubMed
Lin-Siegler, X., Ahn, J. N., Chen, J., Fang, F.-F. A., & Luna-Lucero, M. (2016). Even Einstein struggled: Effects of learning about great scientists’ struggles on high school students’ motivation to learn science. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108, 314–328. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000092. CrossRef
McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. S. (2008). Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 235–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2007.05.001. CrossRefPubMed
Muthén, L., & Muthén, B. (2017). Mplus user’s guide. (8th edn.), Los Angeles: Author.
Nussbaum, A. D., & Steele, C. M. (2007). Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 127–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2005.12.007. CrossRef
Rosenzweig, E. Q., & Wigfield, A. (2016). STEM motivation interventions for adolescents: a promising start, but further to go. Educational Psychologist, 51, 146–163. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2016.1154792. CrossRef
Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychological Review, 115, 336–356. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.336. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Spencer, S. J., Logel, C., & Davies, P. G. (2016). Stereotype threat. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 415–437. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-073115-103235. CrossRefPubMed
Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. The American Psychologist, 52, 613–29. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.6.613. CrossRefPubMed
Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067. CrossRefPubMed
Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2003). Stereotype lift. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 456–467. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031(03)00019-2. CrossRef
Walton, G. M., Logel, C., Peach, J. M., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (2015). Two brief interventions to mitigate a “chilly climate” transform women’s experience, relationships, and achievement in engineering. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 468–485. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037461. CrossRef
Wang, M.-T., Fredricks, J., Ye, F., Hofkens, T., & Linn, J. S. (2017). Conceptualization and assessment of adolescents’ engagement and disengagement in school. European Journal of Psychological Assessment (pp. 1–15). https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000431.
Wang, M.-T., & Holcombe, R. (2010). Adolescents’ perceptions of classroom environment, school engagement, and academic achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 47, 633–662. CrossRef
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548–573. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.92.4.548. CrossRefPubMed
Wilson, T. D., & Linville, P. W. (1985). Improving the performance of college freshmen with attributional techniques. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49, 287–293. CrossRef
Wood, J. L., & Williams, R. C. (2013). Persistence factors for Black males in the community college: An examination of background, academic, social, and environmental variables. Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men, 1, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.2979/spectrum.1.2.1.
Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets that promote resilience: when students believe that personal characteristics can be developed. Educational Psychologist, 47, 302–314. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2012.722805. CrossRef
Yeager, D. S., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., Brzustoski, P., Master, A., & Cohen, G. L. (2014). Breaking the cycle of mistrust: Wise interventions to provide critical feedback across the racial divide. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 804–824. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033906. CrossRef
Yeager, D. S., Romero, C., Paunesku, D., Hulleman, C. S., Schneider, B., Hinojosa, C., & Dweck, C. S. (2016). Using design thinking to improve psychological interventions: The case of the growth mindset during the transition to high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108, 374–391. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000098. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Yeager, D. S., Walton, G. M., Brady, S. T., Akcinar, E. N., Paunesku, D., Keane, L., & Dweck, C. S. (2016). Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, E3341–E3348. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524360113. CrossRef
- Persistence Mindset among Adolescents: Who Benefits from the Message that Academic Struggles are Normal and Temporary?
Kevin R. Binning
- Springer US