Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 4/2010

01-04-2010 | Original Paper

Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders on the Dimension-Change Card Sort Task

Auteurs: Gabriel S. Dichter, Krestin J. Radonovich, Lauren M. Turner-Brown, Kristen S. L. Lam, Tia N. Holtzclaw, James W. Bodfish

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 4/2010

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders have been conceptualized to reflect impaired executive functions. In the present study, we investigated the performance of 6–17-year-old children with and without an autism spectrum disorder on a dimension-change card sort task that explicitly indicated sorting rules on every trial. Diagnostic groups did not differ in speed of responses after the first rule switch or in speed or accuracy on blocks with mixed versus single sort rules. However, performance of the ASD group was significantly slower and less accurate overall than the typically-developing group. Furthermore, within the ASD group, poorer DCCS task performance did not predict more severe autism symptoms. Implications for the executive dysfunction theory of autism are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV (4th ed.). Washington. DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV (4th ed.). Washington. DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. New York, NY: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press. Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. New York, NY: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Barnard, L., Muldoon, K., Hasan, R., O’Brien, G., & Stewart, M. (2008). Profiling executive dysfunction in adults with autism and comorbid learning disability. Autism, 12(2), 125–141. CrossRefPubMed Barnard, L., Muldoon, K., Hasan, R., O’Brien, G., & Stewart, M. (2008). Profiling executive dysfunction in adults with autism and comorbid learning disability. Autism, 12(2), 125–141. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Belleville, S., Ménard, É., Mottron, L., & Ménard, M. (2006). Working memory in autism. In T. P. Alloway & S. E. Gathercole (Eds.), Working memory and neurodevelopmental disorders (pp. 213–238). New York: NY Psychology Press. Belleville, S., Ménard, É., Mottron, L., & Ménard, M. (2006). Working memory in autism. In T. P. Alloway & S. E. Gathercole (Eds.), Working memory and neurodevelopmental disorders (pp. 213–238). New York: NY Psychology Press.
go back to reference Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67(4), 1816–1835. CrossRefPubMed Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67(4), 1816–1835. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bishop, D. V. (1998). Development of the children’s communication checklist (CCC): A method for assessing qualitative aspects of communicative impairment in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(6), 879–891. CrossRefPubMed Bishop, D. V. (1998). Development of the children’s communication checklist (CCC): A method for assessing qualitative aspects of communicative impairment in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(6), 879–891. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bodfish, J. W., Symons, F. W., & Lewis, M. H. (1999). The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, Western Carolina Center Research Reports. Bodfish, J. W., Symons, F. W., & Lewis, M. H. (1999). The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, Western Carolina Center Research Reports.
go back to reference Bogte, H., Flamma, B., Van Der Meere, J., & Van Engeland, H. (2009). Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability. Autism, 13(3), 229–243. CrossRefPubMed Bogte, H., Flamma, B., Van Der Meere, J., & Van Engeland, H. (2009). Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability. Autism, 13(3), 229–243. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Christ, S. E., Holt, D. D., White, D. A., & Green, L. (2007). Inhibitory control in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 1155–1165. CrossRefPubMed Christ, S. E., Holt, D. D., White, D. A., & Green, L. (2007). Inhibitory control in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 1155–1165. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Church, B. R., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1986). The mismatch between gesture and speech as an index of transitional knowledge. Cognition, 23, 43–71. CrossRefPubMed Church, B. R., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1986). The mismatch between gesture and speech as an index of transitional knowledge. Cognition, 23, 43–71. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cohen, S., Bixenman, M., Meiran, N., & Diamond, A. (2001). Task switching in children. Paper presented at the South Carolina Bicentennial Symposium on Attention, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Cohen, S., Bixenman, M., Meiran, N., & Diamond, A. (2001). Task switching in children. Paper presented at the South Carolina Bicentennial Symposium on Attention, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.
go back to reference Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433. CrossRefPubMed Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dempster, N. (1992). The rise and fall of the inhibitory mechanism: Toward a unified theory of cognitive development and aging. Developmental Review, 12, 45–75. CrossRef Dempster, N. (1992). The rise and fall of the inhibitory mechanism: Toward a unified theory of cognitive development and aging. Developmental Review, 12, 45–75. CrossRef
go back to reference Diamond, A., & Kirkham, N. (2005). Not quite as grown-up as we like to think: Parallels between cognition in childhood and adulthood. Psychological Science, 16(4), 291–297. CrossRefPubMed Diamond, A., & Kirkham, N. (2005). Not quite as grown-up as we like to think: Parallels between cognition in childhood and adulthood. Psychological Science, 16(4), 291–297. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dichter, G. S., Lam, K., Turner-Brown, L., Holtzclaw, T., & Bodfish, J. (2009). Generativity abilities predict communication deficits but not repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. Dichter, G. S., Lam, K., Turner-Brown, L., Holtzclaw, T., & Bodfish, J. (2009). Generativity abilities predict communication deficits but not repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord.
go back to reference Geurts, H. M., Corbett, B., & Solomon, M. (2009). The paradox of cognitive flexibility in autism. Trends in cognitive sciences, 13(2), 74–82. CrossRefPubMed Geurts, H. M., Corbett, B., & Solomon, M. (2009). The paradox of cognitive flexibility in autism. Trends in cognitive sciences, 13(2), 74–82. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Happe, F., Booth, R., Charlton, R., & Hughes, C. (2006). Executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Examining profiles across domains and ages. Brain and Cognition, 61(1), 25–39. CrossRefPubMed Happe, F., Booth, R., Charlton, R., & Hughes, C. (2006). Executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Examining profiles across domains and ages. Brain and Cognition, 61(1), 25–39. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hill, E. L. (2004). Executive dysfunction in autism. Trends in Cognitive Science, 8(1), 26–32. CrossRef Hill, E. L. (2004). Executive dysfunction in autism. Trends in Cognitive Science, 8(1), 26–32. CrossRef
go back to reference Hughes, C., Russell, J., & Robbins, T. W. (1994). Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia, 32(4), 477–492. CrossRefPubMed Hughes, C., Russell, J., & Robbins, T. W. (1994). Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia, 32(4), 477–492. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kenworthy, L. E., Black, D. O., Wallace, G. L., Ahluvalia, T., Wagner, A. E., & Sirian, L. M. (2005). Disorganization: The forgotten executive dysfunction in high-functioning autism (HFA) spectrum disorders. Developmental neuropsychology, 28(3), 809–827. CrossRefPubMed Kenworthy, L. E., Black, D. O., Wallace, G. L., Ahluvalia, T., Wagner, A. E., & Sirian, L. M. (2005). Disorganization: The forgotten executive dysfunction in high-functioning autism (HFA) spectrum disorders. Developmental neuropsychology, 28(3), 809–827. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kirkham, N., Cruess, L., & Diamond, A. (2003). Helping children apply their knowledge to their behavior on a dimension-switching task. Developmental Science, 6(5), 449–476. CrossRef Kirkham, N., Cruess, L., & Diamond, A. (2003). Helping children apply their knowledge to their behavior on a dimension-switching task. Developmental Science, 6(5), 449–476. CrossRef
go back to reference Lam, K. S., & Aman, M. G. (2007). The repetitive behavior scale-revised: Independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(5), 855–866. CrossRefPubMed Lam, K. S., & Aman, M. G. (2007). The repetitive behavior scale-revised: Independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(5), 855–866. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Landry, R., & Bryson, S. E. (2004). Impaired disengagement of attention in young children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(6), 1115–1122. CrossRefPubMed Landry, R., & Bryson, S. E. (2004). Impaired disengagement of attention in young children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(6), 1115–1122. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lezak, M. D. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Lezak, M. D. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Lopez, B. R., Lincoln, A. J., Ozonoff, S., & Lai, Z. (2005). Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(4), 445–460. CrossRefPubMed Lopez, B. R., Lincoln, A. J., Ozonoff, S., & Lai, Z. (2005). Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(4), 445–460. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview—Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview—Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Muenz, L. R., & Payton, J. B. (1992). Neuropsychological functioning in nonmentally retarded autistic individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14(5), 749–761. CrossRefPubMed Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Muenz, L. R., & Payton, J. B. (1992). Neuropsychological functioning in nonmentally retarded autistic individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14(5), 749–761. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Nyden, A. (1999). Executive/attention deficits in boys with Asperger syndrome, attention disorder and reading/writing disorder. Autism, 3, 213–228. CrossRef Nyden, A. (1999). Executive/attention deficits in boys with Asperger syndrome, attention disorder and reading/writing disorder. Autism, 3, 213–228. CrossRef
go back to reference O’Riordan, M., & Plaisted, K. (2001). Enhanced discrimination in autism. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, Human Experimental Psychology, 54(4), 961–979. CrossRef O’Riordan, M., & Plaisted, K. (2001). Enhanced discrimination in autism. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, Human Experimental Psychology, 54(4), 961–979. CrossRef
go back to reference O’Riordan, M. A., Plaisted, K. C., Driver, J., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2001). Superior visual search in autism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(3), 719–730. CrossRefPubMed O’Riordan, M. A., Plaisted, K. C., Driver, J., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2001). Superior visual search in autism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(3), 719–730. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ozonoff, S. (1995). Reliability and validity of the Wisconsin card sorting test in studies of autism. Neuropsychology, 9(4), 491–500. CrossRef Ozonoff, S. (1995). Reliability and validity of the Wisconsin card sorting test in studies of autism. Neuropsychology, 9(4), 491–500. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S. (1998). Assessment and remediation of executive dysfunction in autism and Asperger syndrome. In E. Schopler, G. B. Mesibov, & L. J. Kunce (Eds.), Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism? (pp. 263–292). New York: Plenum. Ozonoff, S. (1998). Assessment and remediation of executive dysfunction in autism and Asperger syndrome. In E. Schopler, G. B. Mesibov, & L. J. Kunce (Eds.), Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism? (pp. 263–292). New York: Plenum.
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., Cook, I., Coon, H., Dawson, G., Joseph, R. M., Klin, A., et al. (2004). Performance on Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery subtests sensitive to frontal lobe function in people with autistic disorder: Evidence from the collaborative programs of excellence in autism network. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 139–150. CrossRefPubMed Ozonoff, S., Cook, I., Coon, H., Dawson, G., Joseph, R. M., Klin, A., et al. (2004). Performance on Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery subtests sensitive to frontal lobe function in people with autistic disorder: Evidence from the collaborative programs of excellence in autism network. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 139–150. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., & Jensen, J. (1999). Brief report: Specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(2), 171–177. CrossRefPubMed Ozonoff, S., & Jensen, J. (1999). Brief report: Specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(2), 171–177. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32(7), 1081–1105. CrossRefPubMed Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32(7), 1081–1105. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pennington, B. (1994). The working memory function of the prefrontal cortices: Implications for developmental and individual differences in cognition. In The development of future-oriented processes (pp. 243–289). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Pennington, B. (1994). The working memory function of the prefrontal cortices: Implications for developmental and individual differences in cognition. In The development of future-oriented processes (pp. 243–289). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(1), 51–87. CrossRefPubMed Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(1), 51–87. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Perner, J. (2002). Implicit versus explicit representation and intra- versus inter-modular processing. Computational Intelligence, 18(1), 55–58. CrossRef Perner, J. (2002). Implicit versus explicit representation and intra- versus inter-modular processing. Computational Intelligence, 18(1), 55–58. CrossRef
go back to reference Robbins, T. W., James, M., Owen, A. M., Sahakian, B. J., McInnes, L., & Rabbitt, P. (1994). Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB): A factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia, 5(5), 266–281. PubMed Robbins, T. W., James, M., Owen, A. M., Sahakian, B. J., McInnes, L., & Rabbitt, P. (1994). Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB): A factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia, 5(5), 266–281. PubMed
go back to reference Roid, G. H., & Miller, L. J. (1997). Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised. Woodale, IL: Stoelting Co. Roid, G. H., & Miller, L. J. (1997). Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised. Woodale, IL: Stoelting Co.
go back to reference Rumsey, J. M., & Hamburger, S. D. (1988). Neuropsychological findings in high-functioning men with infantile autism, residual state. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10(2), 201–221. CrossRefPubMed Rumsey, J. M., & Hamburger, S. D. (1988). Neuropsychological findings in high-functioning men with infantile autism, residual state. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10(2), 201–221. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Russell, J. (1997). Autism as an executive disorder. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. Russell, J. (1997). Autism as an executive disorder. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Russell, J., Jarrold, C., & Henry, L. (1996). Working memory in children with autism and with moderate learning difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(6), 673–686. CrossRefPubMed Russell, J., Jarrold, C., & Henry, L. (1996). Working memory in children with autism and with moderate learning difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(6), 673–686. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social communication questionnaire (SCQ): Western Psychological Services. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social communication questionnaire (SCQ): Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Sasson, N., Turner-Brown, L., Holtzclaw, T., Lam, K. S., & Bodfish, J. (2008). Children with autism demonstrate circumscribed attention during passive viewing of complex social and nonsocial picture arrays. Autism Research, 1, 31–42. CrossRefPubMed Sasson, N., Turner-Brown, L., Holtzclaw, T., Lam, K. S., & Bodfish, J. (2008). Children with autism demonstrate circumscribed attention during passive viewing of complex social and nonsocial picture arrays. Autism Research, 1, 31–42. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sergeant, J. A., Geurts, H., & Oosterlaan, J. (2002). How specific is a deficit of executive functioning for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Behavioural Brain Research, 130(1–2), 3–28. CrossRefPubMed Sergeant, J. A., Geurts, H., & Oosterlaan, J. (2002). How specific is a deficit of executive functioning for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Behavioural Brain Research, 130(1–2), 3–28. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference South, M., Klin, A., & Ozonoff, S. (1999). The Yale special interests interview. Unpublished measure. South, M., Klin, A., & Ozonoff, S. (1999). The Yale special interests interview. Unpublished measure.
go back to reference South, M., Ozonoff, S., & McMahon, W. M. (2007). The relationship between executive functioning, central coherence, and repetitive behaviors in the high-functioning autism spectrum. Autism, 11(5), 437–451. CrossRefPubMed South, M., Ozonoff, S., & McMahon, W. M. (2007). The relationship between executive functioning, central coherence, and repetitive behaviors in the high-functioning autism spectrum. Autism, 11(5), 437–451. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference South, M., Ozonoff, S., Suchy, Y., Kesner, R. P., McMahon, W. M., & Lainhart, J. E. (2008). Intact emotion facilitation for nonsocial stimuli in autism: Is amygdala impairment in autism specific for social information? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(1), 42–54. CrossRefPubMed South, M., Ozonoff, S., Suchy, Y., Kesner, R. P., McMahon, W. M., & Lainhart, J. E. (2008). Intact emotion facilitation for nonsocial stimuli in autism: Is amygdala impairment in autism specific for social information? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(1), 42–54. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Turner, M. A. (1997). Towards an executive dysfunction account of repetitive behaviour in autism. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp. 57–100). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. Turner, M. A. (1997). Towards an executive dysfunction account of repetitive behaviour in autism. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp. 57–100). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Turner, M. A. (1999). Annotation: Repetitive behaviour in autism: A review of psychological research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(6), 839–849. CrossRefPubMed Turner, M. A. (1999). Annotation: Repetitive behaviour in autism: A review of psychological research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(6), 839–849. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference van der Geest, J. N., Kemner, C., Camfferman, G., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2001). Eye movements, visual attention, and autism: A saccadic reaction time study using the gap and overlap paradigm. Biological Psychiatry, 50(8), 614–619. CrossRefPubMed van der Geest, J. N., Kemner, C., Camfferman, G., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2001). Eye movements, visual attention, and autism: A saccadic reaction time study using the gap and overlap paradigm. Biological Psychiatry, 50(8), 614–619. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., Carpenter, P. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2005). Verbal and spatial working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(6), 747–756. CrossRefPubMed Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., Carpenter, P. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2005). Verbal and spatial working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(6), 747–756. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Zelazo, P. D., Frye, D., & Rapus, T. (1996). An age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them. Cognitive Development, 11(1), 37–63. CrossRef Zelazo, P. D., Frye, D., & Rapus, T. (1996). An age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them. Cognitive Development, 11(1), 37–63. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders on the Dimension-Change Card Sort Task
Auteurs
Gabriel S. Dichter
Krestin J. Radonovich
Lauren M. Turner-Brown
Kristen S. L. Lam
Tia N. Holtzclaw
James W. Bodfish
Publicatiedatum
01-04-2010
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 4/2010
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0886-1