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Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 4/2021

24-04-2020 | Original Article

Perceptual errors are related to shifts in generalization of conditioned responding

Auteurs: Jonas Zaman, Dieter Struyf, Eva Ceulemans, Bram Vervliet, Tom Beckers

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 4/2021

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Abstract

Studies of perceptual generalization have recently demonstrated a close relationship between stimulus perception and conditioned responding, suggesting that incorrect stimulus perception might account for certain characteristics of generalization gradients. In this study, we investigated whether common phenomena, such as the area and peak shift in conditioned responding, relate to perceptual errors. After a differential conditioning procedure, in which one circle was paired with the presentation of an aversive picture whereas a different-sized circle was not, we combined a generalization test with a three-alternative forced-choice perceptual categorization task where participants had to indicate on every trial whether the presented circle was one of the two circles from the conditioning phase or a different one, after which US-expectancy ratings were collected. The typical peak and area shift were observed when conditioned responses were plotted on a physical dimension. However, when stimulus perception was incorporated generalization gradients diverged from the typical gradient. Both the area and peak shift largely disappeared when accounting for perceptual errors. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate perceptual mechanisms in associative models.

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Voetnoten
1
These averages are based on only 12% of the participants, as the majority failed to provide an unpleasantness rating due to a relatively short response window. In a study by Grühn and Scheibe (2008) the same USs received the following ratings in a sample of young adults: the most aversive US was rated as a 7.77 on arousal (1 = calm, 9 = excited) and as a 1.77 on valence (1 = unpleasant, 9 pleasant), the mild aversive US received an arousal rating of 5.86 and a valence rating of 3.14 and the mildly aversive US was rated as a 4.92 on arousal and as a 3.65 for valence (Grühn & Scheibe, 2008).
 
2
Corrected with a factor 3 for multiple testing.
 
3
Exclusion of subjects (N = 11) that seem to have switched the meaning of the response buttons [accuracies both for CS + and CS- trials < 40%, mean accuracy: CS +  = 15.62% (SE = 4%), CS- = 13.42% (SE = 4%)] did not meaningfully change the results.
 
4
Corrected with a factor of 3 for multiple testing.
 
5
Corrected with a factor of 4 for multiple testing.
 
Literatuur
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Metagegevens
Titel
Perceptual errors are related to shifts in generalization of conditioned responding
Auteurs
Jonas Zaman
Dieter Struyf
Eva Ceulemans
Bram Vervliet
Tom Beckers
Publicatiedatum
24-04-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 4/2021
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-020-01345-w