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Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 4/2018

30-03-2017 | Original Article

Perceiver as polar planimeter: Direct perception of jumping, reaching, and jump-reaching affordances for the self and others

Auteurs: Brandon J. Thomas, Matthew M. Hawkins, Patrick Nalepka

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 4/2018

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Abstract

Runeson (Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 18:172–179, 1977) suggested that the polar planimeter might serve as an informative model system of perceptual mechanism. The key aspect of the polar planimeter is that it registers a higher order property of the environment without computational mediation on the basis of lower order properties, detecting task-specific information only. This aspect was posited as a hypothesis for the perception of jumping and reaching affordances for the self and another person. The findings supported this hypothesis. The perception of reaching while jumping significantly differed from an additive combination of jump-without-reaching and reach-without-jumping perception. The results are consistent with Gibson’s (The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1966; The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1979) theory of information—that aspects of the environment are specified by patterns in energetic media.
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Voetnoten
1
The point-light displays maintained the kinematic pattern of moving people.
 
2
We chose jumping and reaching affordances as the constituent properties of jump-reaching ability for participants to report, because these are clear primitives of jump-reaching ability. It would thus be inconceivable for a theory of perception that does assume the inherent, cognitive entanglement of percepts to propose that the perception of jump-reaching height is achieved independently from the perception of jump-without-reach and reach-without-jump.
 
3
Since participants did not report their standing height, it was assumed that the jumping height is represented as the height of the head when jumping that extends above standing height.
 
4
The presence of the confederate during self-reporting was controlled, because it has been shown to affect the reports of people’s own abilities (Gagnon, Guess, Stefanucci, & Baucom, 2015). By counterbalancing the presence of the confederate during self reports, we could average across any effects that might be attributable to the confederate’s presence. We ran a full analysis with the confederate’s presence as a factor and there was no main effect of this variable nor did it interact with any of the other variables, so this factor is excluded from the results.
 
5
The additive model was used to evaluate the hypothesis in lieu of a regression/correlational analysis, because it more specifically evaluates whether the higher order affordance (jump-reaching height perception) is perceived via the cognitive combination of relevant, lower order affordances (reach-without-jump and jump-without-reach). A significant correlation between the reports of these affordances could exist without the perception of the lower order affordances adding to produce the higher order affordance, and thus would not be appropriate for testing the proposed hypotheses.
 
6
Ratios were used instead of raw reports, because they reflect participants’ reports with respect to their own and the confederate’s actual abilities. Thus, the data are represented in intrinsic units, with respect to the execution of that affordance. This transformation makes the perception of different affordances more effectively comparable (cf. Thomas and Riley 2014).
 
7
See Thomas and Riley (2014) for an application of this methodological and analytic approach to understand whether the perception of affordances depends on lower order metric properties of objects.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Perceiver as polar planimeter: Direct perception of jumping, reaching, and jump-reaching affordances for the self and others
Auteurs
Brandon J. Thomas
Matthew M. Hawkins
Patrick Nalepka
Publicatiedatum
30-03-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 4/2018
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-017-0858-6

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