Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Quality of Life Research 12/2017

25-07-2017

Perceived discrimination and health-related quality-of-life: gender differences among older African Americans

Auteurs: Sheryl L. Coley, Carlos F. Mendes de Leon, Earlise C. Ward, Lisa L. Barnes, Kimberly A. Skarupski, Elizabeth A. Jacobs

Gepubliceerd in: Quality of Life Research | Uitgave 12/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging data suggest that African-American women may fare worse than African-American men in health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Perceived discrimination is an important contributor to poor health overall among African Americans, but few studies examined the intersecting effects of perceived discrimination and gender in explaining HRQOL disparities. We investigated gender differences in HRQOL and tested whether perceived discrimination accounted for these differences.

Methods

We examined data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project in which 5652 African-American adults aged 65 and older completed structured questionnaires about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, HRQOL, perceived discrimination, and health-related variables. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between perceived discrimination and gender differences in poor HRQOL outcomes (defined as 14+ unhealthy days in overall, physical, or mental health over the past 30 days) when controlling for the other variables.

Results

More women reported poor overall HRQOL than men (24 vs. 16% respectively). Higher perceived discrimination was significantly associated with worse overall HRQOL (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.08, 1.15), with stronger effects for women in overall and mental HRQOL. These gender disparities remained significant until controlling for potentially confounding variables. Perceived discrimination did not account for gender differences in poor physical HRQOL.

Conclusions

Perceived discrimination is associated with poor HRQOL in older African Americans, with this association appearing stronger in women than men for mental HRQOL. These findings warrant further investigation of effects of perceived discrimination in gender disparities in overall health, and such research can inform and guide efforts for reducing these disparities.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Measuring healthy days: Population assessment of health-related quality of life. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Measuring healthy days: Population assessment of health-related quality of life. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
2.
go back to reference Zack, M. M. (2013). Health-related quality of life—United States, 2006 and 2010. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 62(Suppl 3), 105–111. Zack, M. M. (2013). Health-related quality of life—United States, 2006 and 2010. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 62(Suppl 3), 105–111.
3.
go back to reference Slabaugh, S. L., Shah, M., Zack, M., Happe, L., Cordier, T., Havens, E., et al. (2016). Leveraging health-related quality of life in population health management: The case for healthy days. Population Health Management, 20(1), 13–22. CrossRefPubMed Slabaugh, S. L., Shah, M., Zack, M., Happe, L., Cordier, T., Havens, E., et al. (2016). Leveraging health-related quality of life in population health management: The case for healthy days. Population Health Management, 20(1), 13–22. CrossRefPubMed
4.
go back to reference Cherepanov, D., Palta, M., Fryback, D. G., & Robert, S. A. (2010). Gender differences in health-related quality-of-life are partly explained by sociodemographic and socioeconomic variation between adult men and women in the US: Evidence from four US nationally representative data sets. Quality of Life Research, 19(8), 1115–1124. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Cherepanov, D., Palta, M., Fryback, D. G., & Robert, S. A. (2010). Gender differences in health-related quality-of-life are partly explained by sociodemographic and socioeconomic variation between adult men and women in the US: Evidence from four US nationally representative data sets. Quality of Life Research, 19(8), 1115–1124. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
5.
go back to reference Zahran, H. S., Kobau, R., Moriarty, D. G., Zack, M. M., Holt, J., & Donehoo, R. (2005). Health-related quality of life surveillance: United States, 1993-2002. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 54(SS04), 1–35. Zahran, H. S., Kobau, R., Moriarty, D. G., Zack, M. M., Holt, J., & Donehoo, R. (2005). Health-related quality of life surveillance: United States, 1993-2002. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 54(SS04), 1–35.
6.
go back to reference Sivertsen, H., Bjorklof, G. H., Engedal, K., Selbaek, G., & Helvik, A. S. (2015). Depression and quality of life in older persons: A review. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 40(5–6), 311–339. CrossRefPubMed Sivertsen, H., Bjorklof, G. H., Engedal, K., Selbaek, G., & Helvik, A. S. (2015). Depression and quality of life in older persons: A review. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 40(5–6), 311–339. CrossRefPubMed
9.
go back to reference Hu, J. (2007). Health-related quality of life in low-income older African Americans. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 24(4), 253–265. CrossRefPubMed Hu, J. (2007). Health-related quality of life in low-income older African Americans. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 24(4), 253–265. CrossRefPubMed
10.
go back to reference Skarupski, K. A., Mendes de Leon, C. F., Bienias, J. L., Scherr, P. A., Zack, M. M., Moriarty, D. G., et al. (2007). Black-white differences in health-related quality of life among older adults. Quality of Life Research, 16(2), 287–296. CrossRefPubMed Skarupski, K. A., Mendes de Leon, C. F., Bienias, J. L., Scherr, P. A., Zack, M. M., Moriarty, D. G., et al. (2007). Black-white differences in health-related quality of life among older adults. Quality of Life Research, 16(2), 287–296. CrossRefPubMed
12.
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). CDC health disparities and inequalities report—United States, 2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(Suppl 3), 1–187. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). CDC health disparities and inequalities report—United States, 2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(Suppl 3), 1–187.
13.
go back to reference Mezuk, B., Rafferty, J. A., Kershaw, K. N., Hudson, D., Abdou, C. M., Lee, H., et al. (2010). Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: Stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression. American Journal of Epidemiology, 172(11), 1238–1249. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Mezuk, B., Rafferty, J. A., Kershaw, K. N., Hudson, D., Abdou, C. M., Lee, H., et al. (2010). Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: Stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression. American Journal of Epidemiology, 172(11), 1238–1249. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
14.
go back to reference Ward, E. C., & Heidrich, S. M. (2009). African American women’s beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and preferred coping behaviors. Research in Nursing & Health, 32(5), 480–492. CrossRef Ward, E. C., & Heidrich, S. M. (2009). African American women’s beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and preferred coping behaviors. Research in Nursing & Health, 32(5), 480–492. CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Ward, E. C., Mengesha, M., & Issa, F. (2014). Older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(1), 46–59. CrossRefPubMed Ward, E. C., Mengesha, M., & Issa, F. (2014). Older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(1), 46–59. CrossRefPubMed
16.
go back to reference Lewis, T. T., Cogburn, C. D., & Williams, D. R. (2015). Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: Scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 407–440. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lewis, T. T., Cogburn, C. D., & Williams, D. R. (2015). Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: Scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 407–440. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
17.
go back to reference Paradies, Y. (2006). A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(4), 888–901. CrossRefPubMed Paradies, Y. (2006). A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(4), 888–901. CrossRefPubMed
18.
go back to reference Brondolo, E., Love, E. E., Pencille, M., Schoenthaler, A., & Ogedegbe, G. (2011). Racism and hypertension: A review of the empirical evidence and implications for clinical practice. American Journal of Hypertension, 24(5), 518–529. CrossRefPubMed Brondolo, E., Love, E. E., Pencille, M., Schoenthaler, A., & Ogedegbe, G. (2011). Racism and hypertension: A review of the empirical evidence and implications for clinical practice. American Journal of Hypertension, 24(5), 518–529. CrossRefPubMed
19.
go back to reference Sims, M., Diez-Roux, A. V., Dudley, A., Gebreab, S., Wyatt, S. B., Bruce, M. A., et al. (2012). Perceived discrimination and hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. American Journal of Public Health, 102(S2), S258–S265. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Sims, M., Diez-Roux, A. V., Dudley, A., Gebreab, S., Wyatt, S. B., Bruce, M. A., et al. (2012). Perceived discrimination and hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. American Journal of Public Health, 102(S2), S258–S265. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
20.
go back to reference Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 200–208. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 200–208. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
21.
go back to reference Sellers, S., Cherepanov, D., Hanmer, J., Fryback, D. G., & Palta, M. (2013). Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. Quality of Life Research, 22(6), 1307–1312. CrossRefPubMed Sellers, S., Cherepanov, D., Hanmer, J., Fryback, D. G., & Palta, M. (2013). Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. Quality of Life Research, 22(6), 1307–1312. CrossRefPubMed
22.
go back to reference Lynch, C. P., McTigue, K. M., Bost, J. E., Tinker, L. F., Vitolins, M., Adams-Campbell, L., et al. (2010). Excess weight and physical health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Journal of Women’s Health, 19(8), 1449–1458. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lynch, C. P., McTigue, K. M., Bost, J. E., Tinker, L. F., Vitolins, M., Adams-Campbell, L., et al. (2010). Excess weight and physical health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Journal of Women’s Health, 19(8), 1449–1458. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
24.
go back to reference Geronimus, A. T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., & Bound, J. (2006). “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96(5), 826–833. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Geronimus, A. T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., & Bound, J. (2006). “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96(5), 826–833. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
25.
go back to reference Nowakowski, A. C. (2014). Chronic inflammation and quality of life in older adults: A cross-sectional study using biomarkers to predict emotional and relational outcomes. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 141. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Nowakowski, A. C. (2014). Chronic inflammation and quality of life in older adults: A cross-sectional study using biomarkers to predict emotional and relational outcomes. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 141. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
26.
go back to reference Bowleg, L. (2012). The problem with the phrase women and minorities: Intersectionality-an important theoretical framework for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 102(7), 1267–1273. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Bowleg, L. (2012). The problem with the phrase women and minorities: Intersectionality-an important theoretical framework for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 102(7), 1267–1273. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
27.
go back to reference Collins, P. H. (2015). Intersectionality’s definitional dilemmas. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1), 1–20. CrossRef Collins, P. H. (2015). Intersectionality’s definitional dilemmas. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1), 1–20. CrossRef
28.
go back to reference Stevens-Watkins, D., Perry, B., Pullen, E., Jewell, J., & Oser, C. B. (2014). Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(4), 561–569. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Stevens-Watkins, D., Perry, B., Pullen, E., Jewell, J., & Oser, C. B. (2014). Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(4), 561–569. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
29.
go back to reference Woods-Giscombé, C. L., & Black, A. R. (2010). Mind-body interventions to reduce risk for health disparities related to stress and strength among African American women: The potential of mindfulness-based stress reduction, loving-kindness, and the NTU therapeutic framework. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 15(3), 115–131. Woods-Giscombé, C. L., & Black, A. R. (2010). Mind-body interventions to reduce risk for health disparities related to stress and strength among African American women: The potential of mindfulness-based stress reduction, loving-kindness, and the NTU therapeutic framework. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 15(3), 115–131.
30.
go back to reference Bienias, J. L., Beckett, L. A., Bennett, D. A., Wilson, R. S., & Evans, D. A. (2003). Design of the Chicago health and aging project (CHAP). Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 5(5), 349–355. CrossRefPubMed Bienias, J. L., Beckett, L. A., Bennett, D. A., Wilson, R. S., & Evans, D. A. (2003). Design of the Chicago health and aging project (CHAP). Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 5(5), 349–355. CrossRefPubMed
31.
go back to reference Evans, D. A., Bennett, D. A., Wilson, R. S., Bienias, J. L., Morris, M. C., Scherr, P. A., et al. (2003). Incidence of Alzheimer disease in a biracial urban community: Relation to apolipoprotein E allele status. Archives of Neurology, 60(2), 185–189. CrossRefPubMed Evans, D. A., Bennett, D. A., Wilson, R. S., Bienias, J. L., Morris, M. C., Scherr, P. A., et al. (2003). Incidence of Alzheimer disease in a biracial urban community: Relation to apolipoprotein E allele status. Archives of Neurology, 60(2), 185–189. CrossRefPubMed
32.
go back to reference Mendes de Leon, C. F., Barnes, L. L., Bienias, J. L., Skarupski, K. A., & Evans, D. A. (2005). Racial disparities in disability: Recent evidence from self-reported and performance-based disability measures in a population-based study of older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(5), S263–S271. CrossRef Mendes de Leon, C. F., Barnes, L. L., Bienias, J. L., Skarupski, K. A., & Evans, D. A. (2005). Racial disparities in disability: Recent evidence from self-reported and performance-based disability measures in a population-based study of older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(5), S263–S271. CrossRef
33.
go back to reference Wilson, R. S., Bennett, D. A., Beckett, L. A., Morris, M. C., Gilley, D. W., Bienias, J. L., et al. (1999). Cognitive activity in older persons from a geographically defined population. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 54(3), P155–P160. CrossRef Wilson, R. S., Bennett, D. A., Beckett, L. A., Morris, M. C., Gilley, D. W., Bienias, J. L., et al. (1999). Cognitive activity in older persons from a geographically defined population. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 54(3), P155–P160. CrossRef
35.
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Self-reported frequent mental distress among adults–United States, 1993-2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(41), 963–966. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Self-reported frequent mental distress among adults–United States, 1993-2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(41), 963–966.
36.
go back to reference Williams, D. R., Yan, Y., Jackson, J. S., & Anderson, N. B. (1997). Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. Journal of Health Psychology, 2(3), 335–351. CrossRefPubMed Williams, D. R., Yan, Y., Jackson, J. S., & Anderson, N. B. (1997). Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. Journal of Health Psychology, 2(3), 335–351. CrossRefPubMed
37.
go back to reference Barnes, L. L., de Leon, C. F. M., Lewis, T. T., Bienias, J. L., Wilson, R. S., & Evans, D. A. (2008). Perceived discrimination and mortality in a population-based study of older adults. American Journal of Public Health, 98(7), 1241–1247. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Barnes, L. L., de Leon, C. F. M., Lewis, T. T., Bienias, J. L., Wilson, R. S., & Evans, D. A. (2008). Perceived discrimination and mortality in a population-based study of older adults. American Journal of Public Health, 98(7), 1241–1247. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
38.
go back to reference Barnes, L. L., de Leon, C. F. M., Wilson, R. S., Bienias, J. L., Bennett, D. A., & Evans, D. A. (2004). Racial differences in perceived discrimination in a community population of older blacks and whites. Journal of Aging and Health, 16(3), 315–337. CrossRefPubMed Barnes, L. L., de Leon, C. F. M., Wilson, R. S., Bienias, J. L., Bennett, D. A., & Evans, D. A. (2004). Racial differences in perceived discrimination in a community population of older blacks and whites. Journal of Aging and Health, 16(3), 315–337. CrossRefPubMed
39.
go back to reference Everson-Rose, S. A., Mendes de Leon, C. F., Bienias, J. L., Wilson, R. S., & Evans, D. A. (2003). Early life conditions and cognitive functioning in later life. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158(11), 1083–1089. CrossRefPubMed Everson-Rose, S. A., Mendes de Leon, C. F., Bienias, J. L., Wilson, R. S., & Evans, D. A. (2003). Early life conditions and cognitive functioning in later life. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158(11), 1083–1089. CrossRefPubMed
40.
go back to reference Cornoni-Huntley, J., Brock, D., Ostfeld, A., Taylor, J., & Wallace, R. (1986). Established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Resource Data Book. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health. Cornoni-Huntley, J., Brock, D., Ostfeld, A., Taylor, J., & Wallace, R. (1986). Established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Resource Data Book. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health.
41.
go back to reference Huntley, J., Ostfeld, A. M., Taylor, J. O., Wallace, R. B., Blazer, D., Berkman, L. F., et al. (1993). Established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly: Study design and methodology. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 5(1), 27–37. CrossRef Huntley, J., Ostfeld, A. M., Taylor, J. O., Wallace, R. B., Blazer, D., Berkman, L. F., et al. (1993). Established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly: Study design and methodology. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 5(1), 27–37. CrossRef
42.
go back to reference Branch, L. G., Katz, S., Kniepmann, K., & Papsidero, J. A. (1984). A prospective study of functional status among community elders. American Journal of Public Health, 74(3), 266–268. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Branch, L. G., Katz, S., Kniepmann, K., & Papsidero, J. A. (1984). A prospective study of functional status among community elders. American Journal of Public Health, 74(3), 266–268. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
43.
go back to reference Mendes de Leon, C. F., & Rajan, K. B. (2014). Psychosocial influences in onset and progression of late life disability. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69(2), 287–302. CrossRefPubMedCentral Mendes de Leon, C. F., & Rajan, K. B. (2014). Psychosocial influences in onset and progression of late life disability. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69(2), 287–302. CrossRefPubMedCentral
44.
go back to reference Rajan, K. B., Hebert, L. E., Scherr, P. A., Mendes de Leon, C. F., & Evans, D. A. (2013). Disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living is associated with faster rate of decline in cognitive function of older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(5), 624–630. CrossRef Rajan, K. B., Hebert, L. E., Scherr, P. A., Mendes de Leon, C. F., & Evans, D. A. (2013). Disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living is associated with faster rate of decline in cognitive function of older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(5), 624–630. CrossRef
45.
go back to reference Cummings, J. L., & Jackson, P. B. (2008). Race, gender, and SES disparities in self-assessed health, 1974-2004. Research on Aging, 30(2), 137–168. CrossRef Cummings, J. L., & Jackson, P. B. (2008). Race, gender, and SES disparities in self-assessed health, 1974-2004. Research on Aging, 30(2), 137–168. CrossRef
46.
go back to reference McCall, L. (2005). The complexity of intersectionality. Signs, 30(3), 1771–1800. CrossRef McCall, L. (2005). The complexity of intersectionality. Signs, 30(3), 1771–1800. CrossRef
47.
go back to reference Chae, D. H., Lincoln, K. D., Adler, N. E., & Syme, S. L. (2010). Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes. Social Science and Medicine, 71(6), 1182–1188. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Chae, D. H., Lincoln, K. D., Adler, N. E., & Syme, S. L. (2010). Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes. Social Science and Medicine, 71(6), 1182–1188. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
48.
go back to reference Collins, J. W., Jr., David, R. J., Handler, A., Wall, S., & Andes, S. (2004). Very low birthweight in African American infants: The role of maternal exposure to interpersonal racial discrimination. American Journal of Public Health, 94(12), 2132–2138. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Collins, J. W., Jr., David, R. J., Handler, A., Wall, S., & Andes, S. (2004). Very low birthweight in African American infants: The role of maternal exposure to interpersonal racial discrimination. American Journal of Public Health, 94(12), 2132–2138. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
49.
go back to reference De Marco, M., Thorburn, S., & Zhao, W. (2008). Perceived discrimination during prenatal care, labor, and delivery: An examination of data from the Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 1998-1999, 2000, and 2001. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1818–1822. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral De Marco, M., Thorburn, S., & Zhao, W. (2008). Perceived discrimination during prenatal care, labor, and delivery: An examination of data from the Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 1998-1999, 2000, and 2001. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1818–1822. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
50.
51.
go back to reference Pieterse, A. L., Todd, N. R., Neville, H. A., & Carter, R. T. (2012). Perceived racism and mental health among Black American adults: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 1–9. CrossRefPubMed Pieterse, A. L., Todd, N. R., Neville, H. A., & Carter, R. T. (2012). Perceived racism and mental health among Black American adults: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 1–9. CrossRefPubMed
52.
go back to reference Grollman, E. A. (2014). Multiple disadvantaged statuses and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 55(1), 3–19. CrossRefPubMed Grollman, E. A. (2014). Multiple disadvantaged statuses and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 55(1), 3–19. CrossRefPubMed
53.
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Rusting, C. L. (1999). Gender differences in well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-Being: Foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Rusting, C. L. (1999). Gender differences in well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-Being: Foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
55.
go back to reference Brondolo, E., Love, E. E., Pencille, M., Schoenthaler, A., & Ogedegbe, G. (2011). Racism and hypertension: A review of the empirical evidence and implications for clinical practice. American Journal of Hypertension, 24(5), 518–529. CrossRefPubMed Brondolo, E., Love, E. E., Pencille, M., Schoenthaler, A., & Ogedegbe, G. (2011). Racism and hypertension: A review of the empirical evidence and implications for clinical practice. American Journal of Hypertension, 24(5), 518–529. CrossRefPubMed
56.
go back to reference Schulz, A. J., Gravlee, C. C., Williams, D. R., Israel, B. A., Mentz, G., & Rowe, Z. (2006). Discrimination, symptoms of depression, and self-rated health among African American women in Detroit: Results from a longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 96(7), 1265–1270. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Schulz, A. J., Gravlee, C. C., Williams, D. R., Israel, B. A., Mentz, G., & Rowe, Z. (2006). Discrimination, symptoms of depression, and self-rated health among African American women in Detroit: Results from a longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 96(7), 1265–1270. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
57.
go back to reference Lewis, T. T., Aiello, A. E., Leurgans, S., Kelly, J., & Barnes, L. L. (2010). Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels in older African-American adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24(3), 438–443. CrossRefPubMed Lewis, T. T., Aiello, A. E., Leurgans, S., Kelly, J., & Barnes, L. L. (2010). Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels in older African-American adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24(3), 438–443. CrossRefPubMed
58.
go back to reference Stepanikova, I., Bateman, L. B., & Oates, G. R. (2017). Systemic inflammation in midlife: Race, socioeconomic status, and perceived discrimination. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(Supplement 1), S63–S76. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Stepanikova, I., Bateman, L. B., & Oates, G. R. (2017). Systemic inflammation in midlife: Race, socioeconomic status, and perceived discrimination. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(Supplement 1), S63–S76. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
59.
go back to reference Friedman, E. M., Williams, D. R., Singer, B. H., & Ryff, C. D. (2009). Chronic discrimination predicts higher circulating levels of E-selectin in a national sample: The MIDUS study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23(5), 684–692. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Friedman, E. M., Williams, D. R., Singer, B. H., & Ryff, C. D. (2009). Chronic discrimination predicts higher circulating levels of E-selectin in a national sample: The MIDUS study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23(5), 684–692. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
60.
go back to reference Khera, A., McGuire, D. K., Murphy, S. A., Stanek, H. G., Das, S. R., Vongpatanasin, W., et al. (2005). Race and gender differences in C-reactive protein levels. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 46(3), 464–469. CrossRefPubMed Khera, A., McGuire, D. K., Murphy, S. A., Stanek, H. G., Das, S. R., Vongpatanasin, W., et al. (2005). Race and gender differences in C-reactive protein levels. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 46(3), 464–469. CrossRefPubMed
61.
go back to reference Mays, V. M. (1995). Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: The focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 1(1), 53–65. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Mays, V. M. (1995). Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: The focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 1(1), 53–65. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
62.
go back to reference Gitlin, L. N., Harris, L. F., McCoy, M. C., Chernett, N. L., Pizzi, L. T., Jutkowitz, E., et al. (2013). A home-based intervention to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in older African Americans: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 159(4), 243–252. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Gitlin, L. N., Harris, L. F., McCoy, M. C., Chernett, N. L., Pizzi, L. T., Jutkowitz, E., et al. (2013). A home-based intervention to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in older African Americans: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 159(4), 243–252. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
63.
go back to reference Grubbs, K. M., Cheney, A. M., Fortney, J. C., Edlund, C., Han, X., Dubbert, P., et al. (2015). The role of gender in moderating treatment outcome in collaborative care for anxiety. Psychiatric Services Journal, 66(3), 265–271. CrossRef Grubbs, K. M., Cheney, A. M., Fortney, J. C., Edlund, C., Han, X., Dubbert, P., et al. (2015). The role of gender in moderating treatment outcome in collaborative care for anxiety. Psychiatric Services Journal, 66(3), 265–271. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Perceived discrimination and health-related quality-of-life: gender differences among older African Americans
Auteurs
Sheryl L. Coley
Carlos F. Mendes de Leon
Earlise C. Ward
Lisa L. Barnes
Kimberly A. Skarupski
Elizabeth A. Jacobs
Publicatiedatum
25-07-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer International Publishing
Gepubliceerd in
Quality of Life Research / Uitgave 12/2017
Print ISSN: 0962-9343
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2649
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-017-1663-9

Andere artikelen Uitgave 12/2017

Quality of Life Research 12/2017 Naar de uitgave