Associations between age, resting-state (RS) peak-alpha-frequency (PAF = frequency showing largest amplitude alpha activity), and thalamic volume (thalamus thought to modulate alpha activity) were examined to understand differences in RS alpha activity between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically-developing children (TDC) noted in prior studies. RS MEG and structural-MRI data were obtained from 51 ASD and 70 TDC 6- to 18-year-old males. PAF and thalamic volume maturation were observed in TDC but not ASD. Although PAF was associated with right thalamic volume in TDC (R2 = 0.12, p = 0.01) but not ASD (R2 = 0.01, p = 0.35), this group difference was not large enough to reach significance. Findings thus showed unusual maturation of brain function and structure in ASD as well as an across-group thalamic contribution to alpha rhythms.