Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 12/2016

30-08-2016 | Original Paper

Patterns of Metaperception in Adolescents with Social Anxiety: Mind Reading in the Classroom

Auteurs: Klaus Ranta, Eero Laakkonen, Päivi M. Niemi

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 12/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Socially anxious adults display an interpretation bias toward anticipating threat such as a high probability of audience criticism even in nonthreatening social situations. They may also expect more negative audience reactions to self than to others acknowledging anxiety. Few studies have examined such biases in adolescents. We examined negative and positive metaperceptions (i.e., others’ perceived responses) in 13–16-year-old adolescents (n = 655) with high vs. normal social anxiety in a hypothetical classroom scenario, in which the participants predicted the frequency of negative and positive classmate responses when imagining either themselves (self-referent metaperceptions) or a classmate (other-referent metaperceptions) with visible symptoms of social anxiety as the target persons giving a speech. We assessed social anxiety with the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and metaperception using the Classroom Questionnaire of Social Anxiety and Interpersonal Cognition. Social anxiety was associated with negative self-referent metaperceptions to a greater degree than with negative other-referent metaperceptions. Compared with adolescents with normal social anxiety, those with high social anxiety (both boys and girls) predicted a broader range of negative classmate responses toward self, as compared with their predictions of negative responses toward a classmate. These group differences were observed specifically with regard to audience’s predicted covert negative responses (i.e., negative thoughts and feelings) toward self, indicating that socially anxious adolescents tend to mind-read. Minimal group differences in positive metaperceptions were observed. The results reveal target and content specificity in socially anxious adolescents’ negative metaperceptions.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Amir, N., Beard, C., & Bower, E. (2005). Interpretation bias and social anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 433–443. CrossRef Amir, N., Beard, C., & Bower, E. (2005). Interpretation bias and social anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 433–443. CrossRef
go back to reference Amir, N., & Bomeya, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In S. G. Hofmann, & P. M. DiBartolo (Eds.), Social anxiety: clinical, developmental, and social perspective. (2nd ed. pp. 373–393). Burlington, MA: Elsevier. Amir, N., & Bomeya, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In S. G. Hofmann, & P. M. DiBartolo (Eds.), Social anxiety: clinical, developmental, and social perspective. (2nd ed. pp. 373–393). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
go back to reference Amir, N., Foa, E. B., & Coles, M. E. (1998). Negative interpretation bias in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 945–957. CrossRef Amir, N., Foa, E. B., & Coles, M. E. (1998). Negative interpretation bias in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 945–957. CrossRef
go back to reference Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Fairholme, C. P., Ellard, K. K., Boisseau, C.L., & Allen, L.B., et al. (2011). The unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press. Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Fairholme, C. P., Ellard, K. K., Boisseau, C.L., & Allen, L.B., et al. (2011). The unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Blöte, A. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2007). Socially anxious adolescents’ perception of treatment by classmates. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 189–198. CrossRefPubMed Blöte, A. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2007). Socially anxious adolescents’ perception of treatment by classmates. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 189–198. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Blöte, A. W., Kint, M. J. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2007). Peer behaviour toward socially anxious adolescents: classroom observations. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2773–2779. CrossRefPubMed Blöte, A. W., Kint, M. J. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2007). Peer behaviour toward socially anxious adolescents: classroom observations. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2773–2779. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Blöte, A. W., Duvekot, J., Schalk, R. D. F., Tuinenburg, E. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2009). Nervousness and performance characteristics as predictors of peer behavior towards socially anxious adolescents. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 39, 1498–1507. CrossRef Blöte, A. W., Duvekot, J., Schalk, R. D. F., Tuinenburg, E. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2009). Nervousness and performance characteristics as predictors of peer behavior towards socially anxious adolescents. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 39, 1498–1507. CrossRef
go back to reference Butler, G., & Wells, A. (1995). Cognitive-behavioral treatments: clinical applications. In R. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 310–333). New York: Guilford Press. Butler, G., & Wells, A. (1995). Cognitive-behavioral treatments: clinical applications. In R. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 310–333). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Bögels, S. M., Snieder, N., & Kindt, M. (2003). Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalised anxiety. Behavior Change, 20, 160–169. CrossRef Bögels, S. M., Snieder, N., & Kindt, M. (2003). Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalised anxiety. Behavior Change, 20, 160–169. CrossRef
go back to reference Cannon, M. F., & Weems, C. F. (2010). Cognitive biases in childhood anxiety disorders: do interpretative and judgement biases distinguish anxious youth from their non-anxious peers?. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 751–758. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Cannon, M. F., & Weems, C. F. (2010). Cognitive biases in childhood anxiety disorders: do interpretative and judgement biases distinguish anxious youth from their non-anxious peers?. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 751–758. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Christensen, P. N., Stein, M. B., & Means-Christensen, A. (2003). Social anxiety and interpersonal perception: a social relations model analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1355–1371. CrossRef Christensen, P. N., Stein, M. B., & Means-Christensen, A. (2003). Social anxiety and interpersonal perception: a social relations model analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1355–1371. CrossRef
go back to reference Choudhury, S., Blakemore, S. -J., & Charman, T. (2006). Social cognitive development in adolescence. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, 165–174. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Choudhury, S., Blakemore, S. -J., & Charman, T. (2006). Social cognitive development in adolescence. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, 165–174. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Clark, D. M. (2005). A cognitive perspective on social phobia. In W. R. Crozier, & L. E. Alden (Eds.), The essential handbook of social anxiety for clinicians (pp. 193–218). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Clark, D. M. (2005). A cognitive perspective on social phobia. In W. R. Crozier, & L. E. Alden (Eds.), The essential handbook of social anxiety for clinicians (pp. 193–218). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford Press. Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioural sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioural sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Dalgleish, T., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H., Moradi, A., Yule, W., & Canterbury, R. (1997). Information processing in clinically depressed and anxious children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 535–541. CrossRefPubMed Dalgleish, T., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H., Moradi, A., Yule, W., & Canterbury, R. (1997). Information processing in clinically depressed and anxious children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 535–541. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference de Jong, P. J., & Peters, M. L. (2005). Do blushing phobics overestimate the undesirable communicative effects of their blushing?. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 747–758. CrossRefPubMed de Jong, P. J., & Peters, M. L. (2005). Do blushing phobics overestimate the undesirable communicative effects of their blushing?. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 747–758. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dijk, C., & de Jong, P. J. (2012). Blushing-fearful individuals overestimate the costs and probability of their blushing. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 158–162. CrossRefPubMed Dijk, C., & de Jong, P. J. (2012). Blushing-fearful individuals overestimate the costs and probability of their blushing. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 158–162. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Edwards, K. R., Martin, R. A., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2010). The fear of being laughed at, social anxiety, and memories of being teased during childhood. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52, 94–107. Edwards, K. R., Martin, R. A., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2010). The fear of being laughed at, social anxiety, and memories of being teased during childhood. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52, 94–107.
go back to reference Field, A. P., Hamilton, S. J., Knowles, K. A., & Plews, E. L. (2003). Fear information and social phobic beliefs in children: a prospective paradigm and preliminary results. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 113–123. CrossRefPubMed Field, A. P., Hamilton, S. J., Knowles, K. A., & Plews, E. L. (2003). Fear information and social phobic beliefs in children: a prospective paradigm and preliminary results. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 113–123. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Foa, E. B., Franklin, M. E., Perry, K. J., & Herbert, J. D. (1996). Cognitive biases in generalized social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 433–439. CrossRefPubMed Foa, E. B., Franklin, M. E., Perry, K. J., & Herbert, J. D. (1996). Cognitive biases in generalized social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 433–439. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hadwin, J. A., & Field, A. P. (2010). An introduction to the study of information processing biases in childhood anxiety: theoretical and methodological issues. In J. A. Hadwin, & A. P. Field (Eds.), Information processing biases and anxiety: a developmental perspective (pp. 1–17). Chichester, UK: Wiley. Hadwin, J. A., & Field, A. P. (2010). An introduction to the study of information processing biases in childhood anxiety: theoretical and methodological issues. In J. A. Hadwin, & A. P. Field (Eds.), Information processing biases and anxiety: a developmental perspective (pp. 1–17). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
go back to reference Hoffman, S. G., & Otto, M. W. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder: evidence-based and disorder-specific treatment techniques. New York: Routledge. Hoffman, S. G., & Otto, M. W. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder: evidence-based and disorder-specific treatment techniques. New York: Routledge.
go back to reference Ingles, C. J., La Greca, A. M., Marzo, J. C., Garcia-Lopez, L. J., & Garcia-Fernandez, J. M. (2010). Social anxiety scale for adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in Spanish adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 847–855. CrossRefPubMed Ingles, C. J., La Greca, A. M., Marzo, J. C., Garcia-Lopez, L. J., & Garcia-Fernandez, J. M. (2010). Social anxiety scale for adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in Spanish adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 847–855. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kenny, D. A. (1994). Interpersonal perception: a social relations analysis. New York: Guilford Press. Kenny, D. A. (1994). Interpersonal perception: a social relations analysis. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Knappe, S., Sasagawa, S., & Creswell, C. (2015). Developmental epidemiology of social anxiety and social phobia in adolescents. In K. Ranta, A. M. La Greca, L. J. Garcia-Lopez, & M. Marttunen (Eds.), Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestations and intervention strategies (pp. 39–70). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. Knappe, S., Sasagawa, S., & Creswell, C. (2015). Developmental epidemiology of social anxiety and social phobia in adolescents. In K. Ranta, A. M. La Greca, L. J. Garcia-Lopez, & M. Marttunen (Eds.), Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestations and intervention strategies (pp. 39–70). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
go back to reference La Greca, A. M., & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 83–94. CrossRefPubMed La Greca, A. M., & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 83–94. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M., & Campbell, C. D. (1988). Self-presentational concerns and social anxiety: the role of generalized impression expectancies. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 308–321. CrossRef Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M., & Campbell, C. D. (1988). Self-presentational concerns and social anxiety: the role of generalized impression expectancies. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 308–321. CrossRef
go back to reference Maric, M., Heyne, D. A., van Widenfelt, B. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011). Distorted cognitive processing in youth: the structure of negative cognitive errors and their association with anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 11–20. CrossRefPubMed Maric, M., Heyne, D. A., van Widenfelt, B. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011). Distorted cognitive processing in youth: the structure of negative cognitive errors and their association with anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 11–20. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., Bögels, S. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2008). Interpretation bias and social anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1462–1471. CrossRefPubMed Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., Bögels, S. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2008). Interpretation bias and social anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1462–1471. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2010). Peer perceptions of social skills in socially anxious and nonanxious adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 33–41. CrossRefPubMed Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2010). Peer perceptions of social skills in socially anxious and nonanxious adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 33–41. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011). Negative social cognitions in socially anxious youth: distorted reality or a kernel of truth?. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 214–223. CrossRefPubMed Miers, A. C., Blöte, A. W., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011). Negative social cognitions in socially anxious youth: distorted reality or a kernel of truth?. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 214–223. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mohlman, J., Carmin, C. N., & Price, R. C. (2007). Jumping to interpretations: social anxiety disorder and the identification of emotional facial expressions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 591–599. CrossRefPubMed Mohlman, J., Carmin, C. N., & Price, R. C. (2007). Jumping to interpretations: social anxiety disorder and the identification of emotional facial expressions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 591–599. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pozo, C., Carver, C. S., Wellens, A. R., & Scheier, M. F. (1991). Social anxiety and social perception: construing others’ reactions to the self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 355–362. CrossRef Pozo, C., Carver, C. S., Wellens, A. R., & Scheier, M. F. (1991). Social anxiety and social perception: construing others’ reactions to the self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 355–362. CrossRef
go back to reference Ranta, K., Junttila, N., Laakkonen, E., Uhmavaara, A., La Greca, A.M., & Niemi, P. M. (2012). Social anxiety scale for adolescents (SAS-A): measuring social anxiety among Finnish adolescents. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43, 574–591. CrossRef Ranta, K., Junttila, N., Laakkonen, E., Uhmavaara, A., La Greca, A.M., & Niemi, P. M. (2012). Social anxiety scale for adolescents (SAS-A): measuring social anxiety among Finnish adolescents. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43, 574–591. CrossRef
go back to reference Rapee, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741–756. CrossRefPubMed Rapee, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741–756. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rapee, R. M., & Spence, S. H. (2004). The etiology of social phobia: empirical evidence and an initial model. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 737–767. CrossRefPubMed Rapee, R. M., & Spence, S. H. (2004). The etiology of social phobia: empirical evidence and an initial model. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 737–767. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rheingold, A. A., Herbert, J. D., & Franklin, M. E. (2003). Cognitive bias in adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 639–655. CrossRef Rheingold, A. A., Herbert, J. D., & Franklin, M. E. (2003). Cognitive bias in adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 639–655. CrossRef
go back to reference Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 98–131. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 98–131. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Roth, D., Antony, M. M., & Swinson, R. P. (2001). Interpretations for anxiety symptoms in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 129–138. CrossRefPubMed Roth, D., Antony, M. M., & Swinson, R. P. (2001). Interpretations for anxiety symptoms in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 129–138. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Spence, S. H., Donovan, C., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. (1999). Social skills, social outcomes, and cognitive features of childhood social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 211–221. CrossRefPubMed Spence, S. H., Donovan, C., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. (1999). Social skills, social outcomes, and cognitive features of childhood social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 211–221. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Statistics Finland. (2007). Statistical yearbook of Finland. Jyväskylä, Finland: Statistics Finland. Statistics Finland. (2007). Statistical yearbook of Finland. Jyväskylä, Finland: Statistics Finland.
go back to reference Steiger, J. H. (1980). Tests for comparing elements of a correlation matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 245–251. CrossRef Steiger, J. H. (1980). Tests for comparing elements of a correlation matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 245–251. CrossRef
go back to reference Stopa, L., & Clark, D. M. (2003). Social phobia and interpretation of social events. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 273–283. CrossRef Stopa, L., & Clark, D. M. (2003). Social phobia and interpretation of social events. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 273–283. CrossRef
go back to reference Sundel, M., & Sundel, S. (2005). Behavior change in the human services: behavioral and cognitive principles ands applications. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Sundel, M., & Sundel, S. (2005). Behavior change in the human services: behavioral and cognitive principles ands applications. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
go back to reference Vassilopoulos, S. P., & Banerjee, R. (2008). Interpretation and judgments regarding positive and negative social scenarios in childhood social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 870–876. CrossRefPubMed Vassilopoulos, S. P., & Banerjee, R. (2008). Interpretation and judgments regarding positive and negative social scenarios in childhood social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 870–876. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Veljaca, K. A., & Rapee, R. M. (1998). Detection of negative and positive audience behaviours by socially anxious subjects. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 311–321. CrossRefPubMed Veljaca, K. A., & Rapee, R. M. (1998). Detection of negative and positive audience behaviours by socially anxious subjects. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 311–321. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Voncken, M. J., Alden, L. E., & Bögels, S. M. (2006). Hiding anxiety versus acknowledgment of anxiety in social interaction: relationship with social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1673–1679. CrossRefPubMed Voncken, M. J., Alden, L. E., & Bögels, S. M. (2006). Hiding anxiety versus acknowledgment of anxiety in social interaction: relationship with social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1673–1679. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference Wilson, J. K., & Rapee, R. M. (2005). The interpretation of negative social events in social phobia with versus without comorbid mood disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 245–274. CrossRefPubMed Wilson, J. K., & Rapee, R. M. (2005). The interpretation of negative social events in social phobia with versus without comorbid mood disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 245–274. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wong, Q. J. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2015). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety and phobia in adolescents. In K. Ranta, A. M. La Greca, L. J. Garcia-Lopez, & M. Marttunen (Eds.), Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestations and intervention strategies (pp. 11–37). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. Wong, Q. J. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2015). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety and phobia in adolescents. In K. Ranta, A. M. La Greca, L. J. Garcia-Lopez, & M. Marttunen (Eds.), Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestations and intervention strategies (pp. 11–37). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
go back to reference Wright, S. P. (1992). Adjusted p-values for simultaneous inference. Biometrics, 48, 1005–1013. CrossRef Wright, S. P. (1992). Adjusted p-values for simultaneous inference. Biometrics, 48, 1005–1013. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Patterns of Metaperception in Adolescents with Social Anxiety: Mind Reading in the Classroom
Auteurs
Klaus Ranta
Eero Laakkonen
Päivi M. Niemi
Publicatiedatum
30-08-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 12/2016
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0519-1