Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Involvement in bullying and sexual harassment in adolescence is associated with a variety of internalizing, externalizing, and health-risk behaviors. Yet, the two behaviors are often studied independently. The current study examined how bullying and sexual harassment co-occur and whether social connections protected youth from risk patterns. The data for this study come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 121,311; 50% female, 74% White, 26% received free or reduced-price lunch; M age = 14.9, SD = 1.3). Students reported on bullying and sexual harassment victimization and perpetration. Using latent class analysis, youth were classified into five patterns: High-Risk of All Forms of Victimization and Perpetration (7%), Relational and Cyberbullying Victimization (17%), Sexual Harassment Victimization and Perpetration (8%), Physical Bullying Perpetration (6%), and Low-Risk (62%). Compared to the low-risk class, the four other classes had lower levels of social connections, particularly with teachers and parents. Older youth (9th and 11th grade students) were at greater risk for the sexual harassment pattern, while younger youth (8th grade students) were at greater risk for bullying patterns. The results indicate that efforts to reduce bullying should also address sexual harassment and social connections with adults.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Barboza, G. E., Schiamberg, L. B., Oehmke, J., Korzeniewski, S. J., Post, L. A., & Heraux, C. G. (2009). Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: An ecological perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(1), 101–121. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9271-1. PubMedCrossRef
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 993–1028). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Bucchianeri, M. M., Eisenberg, M. E., Wall, M. M., Piran, N., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2014). Multiple types of harassment: Associations with emotional well-being and unhealthy behaviors in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(6), 724–729. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.10.205. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
California Department of Education. (2010). California Healthy Kids Survey, student well-being in California, 2008-10: Statewide elementary results. San Francisco: WestEd Health and Human Development Program for the California Department of Education. http://chks.wested.org/reports/.
Chiodo, D., Crooks, C. V., Wolfe, D. A., McIsaac, C., Hughes, R., & Jaffe, P. G. (2012). Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimization. Prevention Science, 13(4), 350–359. doi: 10.1007/s11121-011-0236-3. PubMedCrossRef
Clark, S., & Muthén, B. (2009). Relating latent class analysis results to variables not included in the analysis. https://www.statmodel.com/download/relatinglca.pdf.
Collins, L. M., & Lanza, S. T. (2010). Latent class and latent transition analysis: With applications in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Dishion, T. J., Kim, H., & Tein, J. Y. (2015). Friendship and adolescent problem behavior: Deviancy training and coercive joining as dynamic mediators. In T. P. Beauchaine, & S. P. Hinshaw (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of externalizing spectrum disorders (pp. 303–311). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dishion, T. J., Spracklen, K. M., Andrews, D. W., & Patterson, G. R. (1996). Deviancy training in male adolescent friendships. Behavior Therapy, 27(3), 373–390. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80023-2. CrossRef
Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta‐analysis of school‐based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x. PubMedCrossRef
Eisenberg, M. E., Gower, A. L., McMorris, B. J., & Bucchianeri, M. M. (2015). Vulnerable bullies: Perpetration of peer harassment among youths across sexual orientation, weight, and disability status. American Journal of Public Health, 105(9), 1784–1791. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302704. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Espelage, D. L., Basile, K. C., De La Rue, L., & Hamburger, M. E. (2015). Longitudinal associations among bullying, homophobic teasing, and sexual violence perpetration among middle school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(14), 2541–2561. doi: 10.1177/0886260514553113. PubMedCrossRef
Gloppen, K. M., Gower, A. L., McMorris, B. J., Eisenberg, M. E. (2017). Associations between peer harassment and school risk and protection profiles. Journal of School Health. (in press).
Hemphill, S. A., Kotevski, A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Bond, L., Kim, M. J., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2011). Longitudinal consequences of adolescent bullying perpetration and victimisation: A study of students in Victoria, Australia. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21(2), 107–116. doi: 10.1002/cbm.802. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Hill, C., & Kearl, H. (2011). Crossing the line: Sexual harassment at school. Washington D.C.: American Association of University Women.
Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. P., & Agatston, P. W. (2012). Cyberbullying: Bullying in the digital age. Milden, MA: Wiley.
Kretschmer, T., Sentse, M., Meeus, W., Verhulst, F. C., Veenstra, R., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2015). Configurations of adolescents’ peer experiences: Associations with parent–child relationship quality and parental problem behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26(3), 474–491. doi: 10.1111/jora.12206. PubMedCrossRef
MacKinnon, C. A. (1979). Sexual harassment of working women: A case of sex discrimination. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Marks, G., Steenbergen, M., & Hooghe, L. (2012). To dichotomize or not to dichotomize? European Union Politics, 13(2), 334–339. CrossRef
Martin, K. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2007). Peer victimization and prosocial experiences and emotional well‐being of middle school students. Psychology in the Schools, 44(2), 199–208. CrossRef
Masten, A. S. (2014). Ordinary magic: Resilience in development. New York: Guilford Publications.
McGuire, K. & Stassen-Berger, R. E. (2014). Dayton signs anti-bullying law. Star Tribute. http://www.startribune.com/dayton-signs-anti-bullying-bill/254659091/.
Meyer, E. J. (2009). Gender, bullying, and harassment: Strategies to end sexism and homophobia in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
Minnesota Department of Education (2017). Minnesota State Report Card. http://rc.education.state.mn.us/#demographics/orgId--999999000000__groupType--state__p--1.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Mplus User’s Guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Preventing bullying through science, policy, and practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23482.
Pellegrini, A. D. (2001). The roles of dominance and bullying in the development of early heterosexual relationships. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(2-3), 63–73. CrossRef
Spriggs, A. L., Iannotti, R. J., Nansel, T. R., & Haynie, D. L. (2007). Adolescent bullying involvement and perceived family, peer and school relations: Commonalities and differences across race/ethnicity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(3), 283–293. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.04.009. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights (2008). Sexual harassment: It’s not academic. Washington, DC: http://www.nccpsafety.org/resources/library/sexual-harassment-its-not-academic/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). Bullying defined. https://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/definition/index.html.
Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Oldehinkel, A. J., De Winter, A. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2005). Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents. Developmental Psychology, 41(4), 672–682. doi: 10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.522. PubMedCrossRef
Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., Luk, J. W., & Nansel, T. R. (2010). Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: Physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(10), 1103–1112. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsq048 [doi]. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Wisniewski, P., Jia, H., Xu, H., Rosson, M. B., & Carroll, J. M. (2015). Preventative vs. reactive: How parental mediation influences teens’ social media privacy behaviors. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, 302-316. http://www.pamspam.com/.
Yoon, J. S. (2004). Predicting teacher interventions in bullying situations. Education and Treatment of Children, 27(1), 37–45. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/42899783.
- Patterns of Bullying and Sexual Harassment: Connections with Parents and Teachers as Direct Protective Factors
Jennifer L. Doty
Amy L. Gower
Jessie H. Rudi
Barbara J. McMorris
Iris W. Borowsky
- Springer US