With the increase in social concern regarding pathological gaming among adolescents, the WHO (World Health Organization) included “gaming disorder” in the International Classification of Disorders, 11th version (ICD-11). However, little longitudinal research has been conducted examining social influences on pathological gaming, particularly in Asian countries (e.g., South Korea, China). With 4-year panel data from young adolescents (N = 968, 50.7% girls; Mage = 13.3 years) in South Korea, this study examined the effects of cultural environmental factors (parents’ excessive interference, communication with parents, and friends’ and teachers’ support) on pathological gaming through academic stress and self-control. The results showed the critical role of academic stress and self-control in the effects of environmental factors on pathological gaming. Parents’ excessive interference increased the degree to which youth experienced academic stress while the degree of communication with parents decreased this stress. Increased academic stress damaged self-control, which finally increased the degree of pathological gaming. Self-control affected the degree of pathological gaming stronger than gaming time did. The theoretical and practical implications from the study findings are discussed.