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02-04-2021

Past-year discrimination and cigarette smoking among sexual minority women: investigating racial/ethnic and sexual identity differences

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Auteurs:
Billy A. Caceres, Tonda L. Hughes, Cindy B. Veldhuis, Alicia K. Matthews
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Supplementary Information

The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10865-021-00217-x.

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Abstract

Although findings are mixed, discrimination has been identified as a risk factor for smoking in sexual minority women (SMW; e.g., lesbian and bisexual). We examined associations between past-year discrimination and cigarette smoking among SMW. Using regression analyses we examined associations of past-year discrimination including count of types of discriminatory experiences and attributions of the main reason for discrimination (i.e., sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender) with smoking outcomes (e.g., current smoking, nicotine dependence, smoking more cigarettes now than 12 months ago). We conducted exploratory analyses to examine whether race/ethnicity and sexual identity moderated the associations of past-year discrimination with smoking outcomes. The sample included 619 SMW. Most identified as lesbian (74.3%) and non-White (61.1%). SMW who reported a higher count of types of discriminatory experiences (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.12–2.12) and any gender-based discrimination in the past year (AOR 4.79, 95% CI 1.39–16.45) reported smoking more cigarettes now than 12 months ago. Associations of other past-year discrimination measures with other smoking outcomes were not significant. Compared to White SMW, any discrimination [B (SD) = 2.56 (0.83)] and a higher count of types of discriminatory experiences in the past year [B (SD) = 0.88 (0.31)] were associated with higher nicotine dependence scores in Black/African American SMW. Past-year discrimination are associated with smoking outcomes in SMW. Black/African American race moderated the associations of any past-year discrimination and a higher count of types of discriminatory experiences with nicotine dependence scores in SMW. Targeted interventions to mitigate the influence of discrimination on smoking among SMW are needed.

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