Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 3/2015

01-03-2015 | Original Paper

Parents’ Perceptions of Risk and the Influence on Children’s Everyday Activities

Auteurs: Anita Nelson Niehues, Anita Bundy, Alexander Broom, Paul Tranter

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 3/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This paper reports the results of a qualitative study of parents’ perceptions of risk and the influence these perceptions had on children’s access to age-appropriate risk taking activities. Thirty-seven parents, aged 28–55 years, participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews after completing a card sort of the attributes they most desired for their children. Parents formed two groups; one (n = 18) comprised parents who had encountered significant risk in their lives; the second (n = 19) had lived relatively risk-free lives. All parents focused on one of their children, aged 5–17 years, as they engaged in the interviews. We based our analysis of participants’ narratives on an adaptation of Charmaz’s approach to social analysis and Packer’s perspective of hermeneutic interpretation. While all parents provided their children with autonomy support (i.e., structure, guidance and connectedness), parents who had experienced significant risks themselves were better able to balance safety and adventure and offer their children opportunities to manage everyday risk and uncertainty. These parents focused on the benefits of participating in age-appropriate risk taking activities to develop life skills. Parents who had relatively risk-free lives focused more on protecting children from harm and preventing them from making mistakes. These parents’ narratives reflected their concerns about whether they were doing the right things for their children and whether others viewed them as good parents. Results suggested that when parents balanced telic (i.e., serious, cautious, goal-oriented, arousal-reducing) and paratelic (i.e., playful, adventurous, activity-oriented, arousal-seeking) motivations and offered children opportunities to engage in age-appropriate risk taking, their children also learned to move between telic and paratelic motivations flexibly. We conclude that risk and uncertainty are not only valuable, but necessary, contributors to children’s healthy development of happiness, well-being and resilience.
Literatuur
go back to reference Apter, M. J. (2007). Reversal theory:The dynamics of motivation, emotion, and personality (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oneworld. Apter, M. J. (2007). Reversal theory:The dynamics of motivation, emotion, and personality (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oneworld.
go back to reference Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage.
go back to reference Brown, S. (2009). Play: How it shapes the brain, opens the imagination, and invigorates the soul. New York: Avery. Brown, S. (2009). Play: How it shapes the brain, opens the imagination, and invigorates the soul. New York: Avery.
go back to reference Buchanan, C. (1999). Building better playgrounds: A project for parents. UAB Magazine, 19(3). Buchanan, C. (1999). Building better playgrounds: A project for parents. UAB Magazine, 19(3).
go back to reference Bundy, A., Naughton, G., Tranter, P., Wyver, S., Baur, L., Schiller, W., Brentnall, J. (2011). The Sydney playground project: Popping the bubblewrap-unleashing the power of play: A cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children’s physical activity and social skills. BMC Public Health, 11. doi: 10.​1186/​1471-2458-11-680. Bundy, A., Naughton, G., Tranter, P., Wyver, S., Baur, L., Schiller, W., Brentnall, J. (2011). The Sydney playground project: Popping the bubblewrap-unleashing the power of play: A cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children’s physical activity and social skills. BMC Public Health, 11. doi: 10.​1186/​1471-2458-11-680.
go back to reference Delle Fave, A., Brdar, I., Freire, T., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Wissing, M. (2011). The eudaimonic and hedonic components of happiness: Qualitative and quantitative findings. Social Indicators Research, 100(2), 185–207. doi: 10.​1007/​s11205-010-9632-5. CrossRef Delle Fave, A., Brdar, I., Freire, T., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Wissing, M. (2011). The eudaimonic and hedonic components of happiness: Qualitative and quantitative findings. Social Indicators Research, 100(2), 185–207. doi: 10.​1007/​s11205-010-9632-5. CrossRef
go back to reference Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542–575. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542–575.
go back to reference Diener, M., & Lucas, R. (2004). Adults desires for childrens emotions across 48 countries: Associations with Individual and National Characteristics. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(5), 525–547. doi: 10.​1177/​0022022104268387​. Diener, M., & Lucas, R. (2004). Adults desires for childrens emotions across 48 countries: Associations with Individual and National Characteristics. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(5), 525–547. doi: 10.​1177/​0022022104268387​.
go back to reference Douglas, M. (1992). Risk and blame: Essays in cultural theory. New York: Routledge. CrossRef Douglas, M. (1992). Risk and blame: Essays in cultural theory. New York: Routledge. CrossRef
go back to reference Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset. New York: Random House. Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset. New York: Random House.
go back to reference Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist, 55(6), 647–654. CrossRefPubMed Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist, 55(6), 647–654. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Fredrickson, B. L. (2009). Positivity. New York: Crown Publishing Group. Fredrickson, B. L. (2009). Positivity. New York: Crown Publishing Group.
go back to reference Fredrickson, B. L., Mancuso, R. A., Branigan, C., & Tugade, M. M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 24(4), 237–258. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Fredrickson, B. L., Mancuso, R. A., Branigan, C., & Tugade, M. M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 24(4), 237–258. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
go back to reference Gill, T. (2007). No fear: Growing up in a risk averse society. London: Calouse Gulbenkian Foundation. Gill, T. (2007). No fear: Growing up in a risk averse society. London: Calouse Gulbenkian Foundation.
go back to reference Gray, C. (2010). The new social story book: Future Horizons Incorporated. Gray, C. (2010). The new social story book: Future Horizons Incorporated.
go back to reference Grolnick, W., & Seal, K. (2008). Pressured parents, stressed-out kids: Dealing with competition while raising a successful child: Prometheus Books. Grolnick, W., & Seal, K. (2008). Pressured parents, stressed-out kids: Dealing with competition while raising a successful child: Prometheus Books.
go back to reference Guldberg, H. (2009). Reclaiming childhood: Freedom and play in an age of fear. London: Routledge. Guldberg, H. (2009). Reclaiming childhood: Freedom and play in an age of fear. London: Routledge.
go back to reference Huta, V., & Ryan, R. (2010). Pursuing pleasure or virtue: The differential and overlapping well-being benefits of hedonic and eudaimonic motives. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(6), 735–762. doi: 10.​1007/​s10902-009-9171-4. CrossRef Huta, V., & Ryan, R. (2010). Pursuing pleasure or virtue: The differential and overlapping well-being benefits of hedonic and eudaimonic motives. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(6), 735–762. doi: 10.​1007/​s10902-009-9171-4. CrossRef
go back to reference Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking: fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking: fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
go back to reference Lupton, D. (1999). Risk. New York: Routledge. Lupton, D. (1999). Risk. New York: Routledge.
go back to reference Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). The how of happiness: Is it possible to become lastingly happier and if so, how? Paper presented at the happiness and its causes conference, Sydney, Australia. Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). The how of happiness: Is it possible to become lastingly happier and if so, how? Paper presented at the happiness and its causes conference, Sydney, Australia.
go back to reference Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111–131. CrossRef Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111–131. CrossRef
go back to reference Niehues, A., Bundy, A., Broom, A., & Tranter, P. (2013). Everyday uncertainties: Reframing adults’ perceptions of risk in children’s outdoor free play. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 1. doi: 10.​1080/​14729679.​2013.​798588. Niehues, A., Bundy, A., Broom, A., & Tranter, P. (2013). Everyday uncertainties: Reframing adults’ perceptions of risk in children’s outdoor free play. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 1. doi: 10.​1080/​14729679.​2013.​798588.
go back to reference Packer, M. (2011). The science of qualitative research. New York: Cambridge University Press. Packer, M. (2011). The science of qualitative research. New York: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Power, A. (2011, June 21, 2013). Thoughts on surplus safety. Retrieved from allenpower.wordpress.com/2011/03/08/thoughts-on-surplus-safety/. Power, A. (2011, June 21, 2013). Thoughts on surplus safety. Retrieved from allenpower.wordpress.com/2011/03/08/thoughts-on-surplus-safety/.
go back to reference Sandseter, E. B. H., & Kennair, L. E. O. (2011). Children’s risky play from an evolutionary perspective: The Anti-phobic effects of thrilling experiences. Evolutionary Psychology, 9(2), 257–284. PubMed Sandseter, E. B. H., & Kennair, L. E. O. (2011). Children’s risky play from an evolutionary perspective: The Anti-phobic effects of thrilling experiences. Evolutionary Psychology, 9(2), 257–284. PubMed
go back to reference Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press. Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press.
go back to reference Slovic, P. (2000). The perception of risk. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd. Slovic, P. (2000). The perception of risk. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
go back to reference Tovey, H. (2007). Playing outdoors: Spaces and places, risk and challenge. New York: Open University Press. Tovey, H. (2007). Playing outdoors: Spaces and places, risk and challenge. New York: Open University Press.
go back to reference Tulloch, J., & Lupton, D. (2003). Risk and everyday life. London: Sage. Tulloch, J., & Lupton, D. (2003). Risk and everyday life. London: Sage.
go back to reference Ungar, M. (2007). Too safe for their own good: How risk and responsibility help teens thrive. Crow’s Nest, NSW: Inspired Living. Ungar, M. (2007). Too safe for their own good: How risk and responsibility help teens thrive. Crow’s Nest, NSW: Inspired Living.
Metagegevens
Titel
Parents’ Perceptions of Risk and the Influence on Children’s Everyday Activities
Auteurs
Anita Nelson Niehues
Anita Bundy
Alexander Broom
Paul Tranter
Publicatiedatum
01-03-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 3/2015
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9891-2