Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
As young children increasingly grow up in a digital environment, parents are confronted with the question whether and how to regulate young children’s digital gaming effectively. The goal of this study was to examine correlates of parents’ degree of restrictive mediation and their (autonomy-supportive or controlling) style of doing so. Specifically, we tested associations of parents’ degree and style of restrictive mediation with parents’ attitudes about digital gaming, parental perceptions of children’s defiance and problematic gaming, and their interest in social play.
A sample of 762 parents of children between 3 and 9 years filled out questionnaires on their degree and style of restrictive mediation, their attitudes about gaming, and their perceptions of children’s oppositional defiance, problematic gaming, and interest in social play.
We found that parents who hold more negative attitudes about digital gaming were more likely to use a controlling style when mediating their child’s gaming. Further, a higher degree of restrictive mediation generally related to more adaptive child outcomes (i.e., lower levels of perceived defiance and problematic gaming, higher levels of perceived interest in social play), whereas the opposite pattern was found for parents’ controlling style of mediation. Finally, these associations were not moderated by children’s age or gender, nor by parents’ gender or educational level.
Also in the context of children’s digital gaming, it seems important for parents to set clear rules. Yet, when doing so, it is equally important to refrain from using controlling strategies, as they seem to be counterproductive.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Baudat, S., Zimmermann, G., Antonietti, J.-P., & Van Petegem, S. (2016). The role of maternal communication style in adolescents’ motivation to change alcohol use: a vignette-based study. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy, 24, 152–162. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2016.1192584. CrossRef
Böcking, S., & Böcking, T. (2009). Parental mediation of television: test of a German-speaking scale and findings on the impact of parental attitudes, sociodemographic and family factors in German-speaking Switzerland. Journal of Children and Media, 3, 286–302. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482790902999959. CrossRef
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371–399. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233. CrossRefPubMed
Brehm, J. W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Brehm, S. S., & Brehm, J. W. (1981). Psychological reactance: a theory of freedom and control. New York: Academic Press.
Clark, L. S. (2011). Parental mediation theory for the digital age. Communication Theory, 21, 323–343. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2011.01391.x. CrossRef
Collier, K. M., Coyne, S. M., Rasmussen, E. E., Hawkins, A. J., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Erickson, S. E., & Memmott-Elison, M. K. (2016). Does parental mediation of media influence child outcomes? A meta-analysis on media time, aggression, substance use, and sexual behavior. Developmental Psychology, 52, 798–812. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000108. CrossRefPubMed
Coyne, S. M., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Stockdale, L., & Day, R. D. (2011). Game on… girls: associations between co-playing video games and adolescent behavioral and family outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49, 160–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.11.249. CrossRefPubMed
Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: the impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48, 90–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.90. CrossRefPubMed
Ferguson, C. J. (2015b). Clinicians’ attitudes toward video games vary as a function of age, gender and negative beliefs about youth: A sociology of media research approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 379–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.016. CrossRef
Ferguson, C. J., Coulson, M., & Barnett, J. (2011). A meta-analysis of pathological gaming prevalence and comorbidity with mental health, academic and social problems. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 1573–1578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.09.005. CrossRefPubMed
Gentile, D. A., Nathanson, A. I., Rasmussen, E. E., Reimer, R. A., & Walsh, D. A. (2012). Do you see what I see? Parent and child reports of parental monitoring of media. Family Relations, 61, 470–487. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2012.00709.x. CrossRef
Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., Lopez-Fernandez, O., & Pontes, H. M. (2017). Problematic gaming exists and is an example of disordered gaming: Commentary on: scholars’ open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal (Aarseth et al.). Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6, 296–301. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.037. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Grolnick, W. S. (2003). The psychology of parental control: how well-meant parenting backfires. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Grolnick, W. S., Frodi, A., & Bridges, L. (1984). Maternal control style and the mastery of motivation of one-year-olds. Infant Mental Health, 5, 72–82. 10.1002/1097-0355(198422)5:2<72::AID-IMHJ2280050203>3.0.CO;2-O. CrossRef
Grolnick, W. S., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2009). Issues and challenges in studying parental control: toward a new conceptualization. Child Development Perspectives, 3, 165–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00099.x. CrossRef
Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parental styles associated with children’s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143–154. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.52. CrossRef
Grolnick, W.S., & Seal, K. (2008). Pressured parents, stressed-out kids: dealing with competition while raising a successful child. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Gutnick, A. L., Robb, M., Takeuchi, L., & Kotler, J. (2010). Always connected: the new digital media habits of young children. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.
Harvey, B., Matte-Gagné, C., Stack, D. M., Serbin, L. A., Ledingham, J. E., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2016). Risk and protective factors for autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting in high-risk families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 43, 18–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2015.12.004. CrossRef
Holloway, D., Green, L., & Livingstone, S. (2013). Zero to eight. Young children and their internet use. http://www.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline/EU%20Kids%20III/PDFs/Zero_to_eight_Report.pdf.
Holtz, P., & Appel, M. (2011). Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.02.004. CrossRefPubMed
Jansen, E., Mulkens, S., & Jansen, A. (2007). Do not eat the red food! Prohibition of snacks leads to their relatively higher consumption in children. Appetite, 49, 572–577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.03.229. CrossRefPubMed
Joussemet, M., Koestner, R., Lekes, N., & Landry, R. (2005). A longitudinal study of the relationship of maternal autonomy support to children’s adjustment and achievement in school. adjustment and achievement in school. Journal of Personality, 73, 1215–1236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00347.x. CrossRefPubMed
Kousari, M., & Mehrabi, M. (2017). Children’s video game experiences: Iranian parents’ strategies of mediation. International Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 1–14. http://ijss.srbiau.ac.ir/article_10281_633b7eec97dd9cefe944d9c5638c2ca8.pdf.
Kowert, R., Domahidi, E., Festl, R., & Quandt, T. (2014). Social gaming, lonely life? The impact of digital game play on adolescents’ social circles. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 385–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.04.003. CrossRef
Lenhart, A., Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Macgill, A.R., Evans, C., & Vitak, J. (2008). Teens, video games, and civics: Teens’ gaming experiences are diverse and include significant social interaction and civic engagement. Pew Internet and American life Project. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED525058.pdf.
Li, A.Y.L., Lo, B.C.Y., & Cheng, C. (2018). It is the family context that matters: Concurrent and predictive effects of aspects of parent-child interaction on video gaming-related problems. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 21, 374–380. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2017.0566.
Livingstone, S. (2007). Strategies of parental regulation in the media-rich home. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 920–941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2005.08.002. CrossRef
Livingstone, S., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011) Disadvantaged children and online risk. EU Kids Online network, London, UK. Report, EU Kids Online network, London, UK. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/39385/.
Livingstone, S., Mascheroni, G., Dreier, M., Chaudron, S., & Lagae, K. (2015). How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style. London: EU Kids Online, LSE.
Marsh, H. W., Hau, K., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: comment on hypothesis- testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2. CrossRef
McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02781.x. CrossRefPubMed
Mills, R. S., & Rubin, K. H. (1998). Are behavioural and psychological control both differentially associated with childhood aggression and social withdrawal? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne des Sciences Délután Comportement, 30, 132–136. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0085803. CrossRef
Muthén, L.K. & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus User’s Guide (7th Edn). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
Nathanson, A. I. (2001). Parent and child perspectives on the presence and meaning of parental television mediation. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 45, 201–220. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4502_1. CrossRef
Nathanson, A. I. (2015). Media and the family: reflections and future directions. Journal of Children and Media, 9, 133–139. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2015.997145. CrossRef
Nikken, P. & Jansz, J. (2003). Parental mediation of children’s video game playing: a similar construct as television mediation. Paper presented at the Digital Games Research Association Conference, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Nikken, P., & Jansz, J. (2014). Developing scales to measure parental mediation of young children’s internet use. Learning, Media and Technology, 39, 250–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2013.782038. CrossRef
Oosting, W., de Kort, Y.A., & Ijsselsteijn, W. (2012). Positive parents taking action: Parental mediation of children’s digital game-play. Paper presented at the e-Youth Conference, Antwerpen, Belgium.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78. 10.1037110003-066X.55.1.68. CrossRef
Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2016). Autonomy and autonomy disturbances in self-development and psychopathology: Research on motivation, attachment, and clinical process. In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), Developmental Psychopathology: Volume 1. Theory and Metod. 3rd Edn. (pp. 385–438). New York: Wiley.
Sameroff, A. J., & Fiese, B. H. (2000). Transactional regulation: the developmental ecology of early intervention. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention. 2nd Ed. (pp. 135–159). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511529320.009. CrossRef
Sanders, W., Parent, J., Forehand, R., Sullivan, A. D., & Jones, D. J. (2016). Parental perceptions of technology and technology-focused parenting: associations with youth screen time. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 44, 28–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2016.02.005. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Smetana, J. G. (2006). Social-cognitive domain theory: Consistencies and variations in children’s moral and social judgments. In M. Killen & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 119–153). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erblaum.
Snibbe, A. C., & Markus, H. R. (2005). You can’t always get what you want: educational attainment, agency, and choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 703–720. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063. CrossRefPubMed
Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2009). Should parental prohibition of adolescents’ peer relationships be prohibited? Personal Relationships, 16, 507–530. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2009.01237.x. CrossRef
Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Van Petegem, S. (2015). Let us not throw out the baby with the bathwater: applying the principle of universalism without uniformity to autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting. Child Development Perspectives, 9, 44–49. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12103. CrossRef
Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Van Petegem, S., Beyers, W., & Ryan, R. (2018). How to solve the conundrum of adolescent autonomy? On the importance of distinguishing between independence and volitional functioning. In B. Soenens, M. Vansteenkiste, & S. Van Petegem (Eds.), Autonomy in Adolescent Development: Towards Conceptual Clarity (pp. 1–32). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Van Petegem, S., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., Zimmermann, G., Antonietti, J.-P., Baudat, S., & Audenaert, E. (2017a). When do adolescents accept or defy to maternal prohibitions? The role of social domain and communication style. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 1022–1037. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0562-7. CrossRefPubMed
Van Petegem, S., Zimmer-Gembeck, M., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Brenning, K., Mabbe, E., Vanhalst, J., & Zimmermann, G. (2017b). Does general parenting context modify adolescents’ appraisals and coping with parental regulation? The case of autonomy-supportive parenting. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 2623–2639. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0758-9. CrossRef
Van Rooij, A. J., Ferguson, C. J., Colder Carras, M., Kardefelt-Winther, D., Shi, J., Aarseth, E., & Deleuze, J. (2018). A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: let us err on the side of caution. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.19. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Wartella, E., Rideout, V.J., Lauricella, A., & Connell, S. (2013). Parenting in the Age of Digital Technology: A National Survey. Report of the Center on Media and Human Development, School of Communication, Northwestern University. http://web5.soc.northwestern.edu/cmhd/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Parenting-Report_FINAL.pdf.
Weinstein, N., & Przybylski, A. K. (2019). The impacts of motivational framing of technology restrictions on adolescent concealment: Evidence from a preregistered experimental study. Computers in Human Behavior, 90, 170–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.053. CrossRef
Whipple, N., Bernier, A., & Mageau, G. (2011). Broadening the study of infant security of attachment: Maternal autonomy-support in the context of infant exploration. Social Development, 20, 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00574.x. CrossRef
Yu, S., Levesque-Bristol, C., & Maeda, Y. (2018). General need for autonomy and subjective well-being: a meta-analysis of studies in the US and East Asia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19, 1863–1882. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-017-9898-2.
Zaman, B., & Mifsud, C.L. (2017). Young children’s use of digital media and parental mediation. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.5817/CP2017-3-xx.
Zaman, B., Nouwen, M., Vanattenhoven, J., de Ferrerre, E., & Van Looy, J. (2015). A qualitative inquiry into the contextualized mediation practices of young children’s digital media use at home. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 60, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2015.1127240. CrossRef
- Parents’ Degree and Style of Restrictive Mediation of Young Children’s Digital Gaming: Associations with Parental Attitudes and Perceived Child Adjustment
Stijn Van Petegem
Evelien de Ferrerre
Antonius J. van Rooij
Jan Van Looy
- Springer US