Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 1/2018

01-09-2017 | Original Paper

Parenting Style, Discipline, and Parental Psychopathology: Gender Dyadic Interactions in Emerging Adults

Auteurs: Cliff McKinney, Kimberly Brown, Mallory L. Malkin

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 1/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Regarding parental influences on child adjustment, research has examined parental and child gender separately more often than the interaction between them. Thus, the current study investigated the effects of parenting styles, discipline practices, and parental psychological symptoms in parent–child gender dyads. The sample consisted of 177 male and 313 female emerging adults who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years and reported they were primarily White and African American. Participants reported on parental characteristics including perceived parenting styles, discipline practices, and parental psychological symptoms in addition to their own psychological symptoms. Results indicated that parent and emerging adult gender moderated some relationships. Notably, interaction effects suggested that higher levels of authoritative parenting were associated with higher levels of emerging adult psychological symptoms. This unexpected finding may indicate that parents provide less authoritative parenting to high functioning emerging adults compared to those who have problems, or that emerging adults perceive high levels of authoritative parenting during this time in their lives as problematic. Thus, effective parenting may vary as a function of children’s development.
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2003). Manual for the ASEBA adult forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2003). Manual for the ASEBA adult forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
go back to reference Antunez, Z., de la Osa, N., Granero, R., & Ezpeleta, L. (2016). Parental psychopathology levels as a moderator of temperament and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in preschoolers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3124–3135. CrossRef Antunez, Z., de la Osa, N., Granero, R., & Ezpeleta, L. (2016). Parental psychopathology levels as a moderator of temperament and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in preschoolers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3124–3135. CrossRef
go back to reference Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. CrossRefPubMed Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York, NY: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York, NY: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
go back to reference Barnett, M. A., Quackenbush, S. W., & Sinisi, C. S. (1996). Factors affecting children’s, adolescents’, and young adults’ perceptions of parental discipline. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157, 411–424. CrossRefPubMed Barnett, M. A., Quackenbush, S. W., & Sinisi, C. S. (1996). Factors affecting children’s, adolescents’, and young adults’ perceptions of parental discipline. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157, 411–424. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Barry, B., & Stewart, G. L. (1997). Composition, process, and performance in self-managed groups: The role of personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 62–78. CrossRefPubMed Barry, B., & Stewart, G. L. (1997). Composition, process, and performance in self-managed groups: The role of personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 62–78. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. In P. A. Cowan & E. Hetherington (Eds.), Family transitions (pp. 111–163). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. In P. A. Cowan & E. Hetherington (Eds.), Family transitions (pp. 111–163). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
go back to reference Beardslee, W. R., Versage, E. M., & Gladstone, T. R. (1998). Children of affectively ill parents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1134–1141. CrossRefPubMed Beardslee, W. R., Versage, E. M., & Gladstone, T. R. (1998). Children of affectively ill parents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1134–1141. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (1997). At risk for anxiety: I. Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 918–924. CrossRefPubMed Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (1997). At risk for anxiety: I. Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 918–924. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bell, R. Q. (1968). A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in studies of socialization. Psychological Review, 75, 81–95. CrossRefPubMed Bell, R. Q. (1968). A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in studies of socialization. Psychological Review, 75, 81–95. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 110–119. CrossRefPubMed Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 110–119. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Byrne, B. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Concepts, Applications, and Programming. 2nd Edition New York, NY: Routledge. Byrne, B. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Concepts, Applications, and Programming. 2nd Edition New York, NY: Routledge.
go back to reference Conrade, G., & Ho, R. (2001). Differential parenting styles for fathers and mothers: Differential treatment for sons and daughters. Australian Journal of Psychology, 53, 29–35. CrossRef Conrade, G., & Ho, R. (2001). Differential parenting styles for fathers and mothers: Differential treatment for sons and daughters. Australian Journal of Psychology, 53, 29–35. CrossRef
go back to reference Cullaty, B. (2011). The role of parental involvement in the autonomy development of traditional-age college students. Journal of College Student Development, 52, 425–439. CrossRef Cullaty, B. (2011). The role of parental involvement in the autonomy development of traditional-age college students. Journal of College Student Development, 52, 425–439. CrossRef
go back to reference Elkins, I., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. (1997). Genetic and environmental influences on parent–son relationships: Evidence for increasing genetic influence during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 33, 351–363. CrossRefPubMed Elkins, I., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. (1997). Genetic and environmental influences on parent–son relationships: Evidence for increasing genetic influence during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 33, 351–363. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M. G., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Mesman, J. (2016). Gender-differentiated parenting revisited: Meta-analysis reveals very few differences in parental control of boys and girls. PLoS One, 11, e0159193. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M. G., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Mesman, J. (2016). Gender-differentiated parenting revisited: Meta-analysis reveals very few differences in parental control of boys and girls. PLoS One, 11, e0159193. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Ensminger, M. E., Hanson, S. G., Riley, A. W., & Juon, H. (2003). Maternal psychological distress: Adult sons’ and daughters’ mental health and educational attainment. Journal of The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1108–1115. CrossRef Ensminger, M. E., Hanson, S. G., Riley, A. W., & Juon, H. (2003). Maternal psychological distress: Adult sons’ and daughters’ mental health and educational attainment. Journal of The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1108–1115. CrossRef
go back to reference Finley, G. E., Mira, S. D., & Schwartz, S. J. (2008). Perceived paternal and maternal involvement: Factor structures, mean differences, and parental roles. Fathering, 6, 62–68. CrossRef Finley, G. E., Mira, S. D., & Schwartz, S. J. (2008). Perceived paternal and maternal involvement: Factor structures, mean differences, and parental roles. Fathering, 6, 62–68. CrossRef
go back to reference Flouri, E., & Midouhas, E. (2017). Environmental adversity and children’s early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 234–243. CrossRefPubMed Flouri, E., & Midouhas, E. (2017). Environmental adversity and children’s early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 234–243. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Flynn, C. P. (1994). Regional differences in attitudes toward corporal punishment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 314–324. CrossRef Flynn, C. P. (1994). Regional differences in attitudes toward corporal punishment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 314–324. CrossRef
go back to reference Gonzalez-Lopez, G. (2004). Fathering latina sexualities: Mexican men and the virginity of their daughters. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 1118–1130. CrossRef Gonzalez-Lopez, G. (2004). Fathering latina sexualities: Mexican men and the virginity of their daughters. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 1118–1130. CrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, S. (2007). Depression in mothers. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 107–135. CrossRefPubMed Goodman, S. (2007). Depression in mothers. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 107–135. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hallers-Haalboom, E. T Mesman, J Groeneveld, M. G Endendijk, J. J van Berkel, S. R van der Pol, L. D. Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2014). Mothers, fathers, sons and daughters: Parental sensitivity in families with two children. Journal of Family Psychology, 2, 138–147 CrossRef Hallers-Haalboom, E. T Mesman, J Groeneveld, M. G Endendijk, J. J van Berkel, S. R van der Pol, L. D. Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2014). Mothers, fathers, sons and daughters: Parental sensitivity in families with two children. Journal of Family Psychology, 2, 138–147 CrossRef
go back to reference Hart, C. H., & Robinson, C. C. (1994). Comparative study of maternal and paternal disciplinary strategies. Psychological Reports, 74, 495–498. CrossRefPubMed Hart, C. H., & Robinson, C. C. (1994). Comparative study of maternal and paternal disciplinary strategies. Psychological Reports, 74, 495–498. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hatzinkolaou, K., & Murray, L. (2010). Infant sensitivity to negative maternal emotional shifts: Effects of infant sex, maternal postnatal depression, and interactive style. Infant Mental Health Journal, 31, 591–610. CrossRef Hatzinkolaou, K., & Murray, L. (2010). Infant sensitivity to negative maternal emotional shifts: Effects of infant sex, maternal postnatal depression, and interactive style. Infant Mental Health Journal, 31, 591–610. CrossRef
go back to reference Hoffman, M. L. (1963). Parent discipline and the child’s consideration for others. Child Development, 34, 573–588. PubMed Hoffman, M. L. (1963). Parent discipline and the child’s consideration for others. Child Development, 34, 573–588. PubMed
go back to reference Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef
go back to reference Joreskog, K. G., & Yang, F. (1996). Nonlinear structural equation models: The Kenny-Judd model with interaction effects. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling: Issues and techniques. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Joreskog, K. G., & Yang, F. (1996). Nonlinear structural equation models: The Kenny-Judd model with interaction effects. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling: Issues and techniques. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Kane, P., & Garber, J. (2009). Parental depression and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Unique effects of fathers’ symptoms and perceived conflict as a mediator. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 465–472. CrossRef Kane, P., & Garber, J. (2009). Parental depression and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Unique effects of fathers’ symptoms and perceived conflict as a mediator. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 465–472. CrossRef
go back to reference Kapungu, C. T., Holmbeck, G. N., & Paikoff, R. L. (2006). Longitudinal association between parenting practices and early sexual risk behaviors among urban African American adolescents: The moderating role of gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 787–798. CrossRef Kapungu, C. T., Holmbeck, G. N., & Paikoff, R. L. (2006). Longitudinal association between parenting practices and early sexual risk behaviors among urban African American adolescents: The moderating role of gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 787–798. CrossRef
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602. CrossRefPubMed Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Kochanska, G., & Kim, S. (2012). Toward a new understanding of legacy of early attachments for future antisocial trajectories: Evidence from two longitudinal studies. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 783–806. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Kochanska, G., & Kim, S. (2012). Toward a new understanding of legacy of early attachments for future antisocial trajectories: Evidence from two longitudinal studies. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 783–806. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lansford, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2008). Cultural norms for adult corporal punishment of children and societal rates of endorsement and use of violence. Parenting: Science and Practice, 8, 257–270. CrossRef Lansford, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2008). Cultural norms for adult corporal punishment of children and societal rates of endorsement and use of violence. Parenting: Science and Practice, 8, 257–270. CrossRef
go back to reference Mahoney, A., Donnelly, W. O., Lewis, T., & Maynard, C. (2000). Mother and father self-reports of corporal punishment and severe physical aggression toward clinic-referred youth. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 266–281. CrossRefPubMed Mahoney, A., Donnelly, W. O., Lewis, T., & Maynard, C. (2000). Mother and father self-reports of corporal punishment and severe physical aggression toward clinic-referred youth. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 266–281. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McGillicuddy-De Lisi, A. V., & De Lisi, R. (2007). Perceptions of family relations when mothers and fathers are depicted with different parenting styles. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 168, 425–442. CrossRefPubMed McGillicuddy-De Lisi, A. V., & De Lisi, R. (2007). Perceptions of family relations when mothers and fathers are depicted with different parenting styles. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 168, 425–442. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McKinney, C., & Milone, M. (2012). Parental and late adolescent psychopathology: Mothers may provide support when needed most. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43, 747–760. CrossRefPubMed McKinney, C., & Milone, M. (2012). Parental and late adolescent psychopathology: Mothers may provide support when needed most. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43, 747–760. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McKinney, C., Morse, M., & Pastuszak, J. (2016). Effective and ineffective parenting: Associations with psychological adjustment in emerging adults. Journal of Family Issues, 37, 1203–1225. CrossRef McKinney, C., Morse, M., & Pastuszak, J. (2016). Effective and ineffective parenting: Associations with psychological adjustment in emerging adults. Journal of Family Issues, 37, 1203–1225. CrossRef
go back to reference McKinney, C., & Renk, K. (2008). Differential parenting between mothers and fathers: Implications for late adolescents. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 806–827. CrossRef McKinney, C., & Renk, K. (2008). Differential parenting between mothers and fathers: Implications for late adolescents. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 806–827. CrossRef
go back to reference Nunes, F., & Mota, C. P. (2017). Parenting styles and suicidal ideation in adolescents: Mediating effect of attachment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 734–747. CrossRef Nunes, F., & Mota, C. P. (2017). Parenting styles and suicidal ideation in adolescents: Mediating effect of attachment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 734–747. CrossRef
go back to reference Patock-Peckham, J. A., Cheong, J., Balhorn, M. E., & Nagoshi, C. T. (2001). A social learning perspective: A model of parenting styles, self-regulation, perceived drinking control, and alcohol use and problems. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 1284–1292. CrossRef Patock-Peckham, J. A., Cheong, J., Balhorn, M. E., & Nagoshi, C. T. (2001). A social learning perspective: A model of parenting styles, self-regulation, perceived drinking control, and alcohol use and problems. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 1284–1292. CrossRef
go back to reference Patock-Peckham, J. A., & Morgan-Lopez, A. A. (2009). The gender specific mediational pathways between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 312–315. CrossRefPubMed Patock-Peckham, J. A., & Morgan-Lopez, A. A. (2009). The gender specific mediational pathways between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 312–315. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Patrick, R. B., & Gibbs, J. C. (2012). Inductive discipline, parental expression of disappointed expectations, and moral identity in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 973–983. CrossRefPubMed Patrick, R. B., & Gibbs, J. C. (2012). Inductive discipline, parental expression of disappointed expectations, and moral identity in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 973–983. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pettit, G. S., Laird, R. D., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Criss, M. M. (2001). Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence. Child Development, 72, 583–598. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Pettit, G. S., Laird, R. D., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Criss, M. M. (2001). Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence. Child Development, 72, 583–598. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Pinquart, M. (2017). Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An updated meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 53, 873–932. CrossRefPubMed Pinquart, M. (2017). Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An updated meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 53, 873–932. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference van der Pol, L. D., Groeneveld, M. G., Endendijk, J. J., van Berkel, S. R., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Mesman, J. (2016). Associations between fathers’ and mothers’ psychopathology symptoms, parental emotion socialization, and preschoolers’ social-emotional development. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3367–3380. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral van der Pol, L. D., Groeneveld, M. G., Endendijk, J. J., van Berkel, S. R., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Mesman, J. (2016). Associations between fathers’ and mothers’ psychopathology symptoms, parental emotion socialization, and preschoolers’ social-emotional development. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3367–3380. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Power, T. G., McGrath, M. P., Hughes, S. O., & Manire, S. H. (1994). Compliance and self-assertion: Young children’s responses to mothers versus fathers. Developmental Psychology, 30, 980–989. CrossRef Power, T. G., McGrath, M. P., Hughes, S. O., & Manire, S. H. (1994). Compliance and self-assertion: Young children’s responses to mothers versus fathers. Developmental Psychology, 30, 980–989. CrossRef
go back to reference Rescorla, L., & Achenbach, T. (2004). The achenbach system of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) for ages 18 to 90 years. The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment: Volume 3: Instruments for adults. 3rd ed. (pp. 115–152). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Rescorla, L., & Achenbach, T. (2004). The achenbach system of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) for ages 18 to 90 years. The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment: Volume 3: Instruments for adults. 3rd ed. (pp. 115–152). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
go back to reference Sharma, M., Sharma, N., & Yadava, A. (2011). Parental styles and depression among adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 37, 60–68. Sharma, M., Sharma, N., & Yadava, A. (2011). Parental styles and depression among adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 37, 60–68.
go back to reference Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent–adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1–19. CrossRef Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent–adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1–19. CrossRef
go back to reference Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the parent-child conflict tactics scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22, 249–270. CrossRefPubMed Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the parent-child conflict tactics scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22, 249–270. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Turney, K. (2011). Labored love: Examining the link between maternal depression and parenting behaviors. Social Science Research, 40, 399–415. CrossRef Turney, K. (2011). Labored love: Examining the link between maternal depression and parenting behaviors. Social Science Research, 40, 399–415. CrossRef
go back to reference Uji, M., Sakamoto, A., Adachi, K., & Kitamura, T. (2014). The impact of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles on children’s later mental health in Japan: Focusing on parent and child gender. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 293–302. CrossRef Uji, M., Sakamoto, A., Adachi, K., & Kitamura, T. (2014). The impact of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles on children’s later mental health in Japan: Focusing on parent and child gender. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 293–302. CrossRef
go back to reference Wahl, K., & Metzner, C. (2012). Parental influences on the prevalence and development of child aggressiveness. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 344–355. CrossRef Wahl, K., & Metzner, C. (2012). Parental influences on the prevalence and development of child aggressiveness. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 344–355. CrossRef
go back to reference Wintre, M. G., & Gates, S. E. (2006). Relationships with parents, spousal reciprocity, and psychological distress in middle-age adults. Journal of Adult Development, 13, 84–94. CrossRef Wintre, M. G., & Gates, S. E. (2006). Relationships with parents, spousal reciprocity, and psychological distress in middle-age adults. Journal of Adult Development, 13, 84–94. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Parenting Style, Discipline, and Parental Psychopathology: Gender Dyadic Interactions in Emerging Adults
Auteurs
Cliff McKinney
Kimberly Brown
Mallory L. Malkin
Publicatiedatum
01-09-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 1/2018
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0865-7