Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 5/2012

01-10-2012 | Original Paper

Parental Divorce, Familial Risk for Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: A Three-Generation Study

Auteurs: Eleni Vousoura, Helen Verdeli, Virginia Warner, Priya Wickramaratne, Charles David Richard Baily

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 5/2012

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Research suggests a link between parental divorce and negative child outcomes; however, the presence of parental depression may confound this relationship. Studies exploring the simultaneous effects of depression and parents’ divorce on the adjustment of their children are scarce and rarely have a longitudinal design. This is the first three-generation study of the relative effects of depression and divorce on offspring psychopathology, based on data from a 25-year longitudinal study with families at high and low risk for depression. One hundred seventy-eight grandchildren (mean age = 13.9 years) of depressed and nondepressed parents and grandparents were evaluated by raters blind to their parents’ and grandparents’ clinical status. We found that in both low and high-risk children, divorce had a limited impact on child adjustment over and above familial risk for depression. Divorce had a significant effect on child outcomes only among high-risk grandchildren with a depressed grandparent and non-depressed parents, with this group showing a threefold risk for anxiety disorders. Results support previous findings suggesting that familial risk for depression largely overshadows the effect of parental divorce on child psychopathology. Possible reasons for the lack of association between divorce and child psychopathology among low-risk offspring are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference Amato, P. R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355–370. PubMedCrossRef Amato, P. R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355–370. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26–46. PubMedCrossRef Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26–46. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beardselee, W. R., Versage, E. M., & Giadstone, T. R. (1998). Children of affectively Ill parents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1134–1141. CrossRef Beardselee, W. R., Versage, E. M., & Giadstone, T. R. (1998). Children of affectively Ill parents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1134–1141. CrossRef
go back to reference Brennan, P. A., Hammen, C., Katz, A. R., & Le Brocque, R. M. (2002). Maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1075–1085. PubMedCrossRef Brennan, P. A., Hammen, C., Katz, A. R., & Le Brocque, R. M. (2002). Maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1075–1085. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brent, D. A., Perper, J. A., Moritz, G., Liotus, L., Schweers, J., Balach, L., et al. (1994). Familial risk factors for adolescent suicide: A case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89, 52–58. PubMedCrossRef Brent, D. A., Perper, J. A., Moritz, G., Liotus, L., Schweers, J., Balach, L., et al. (1994). Familial risk factors for adolescent suicide: A case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89, 52–58. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Cherlin, A. J., & Kiernan, K. E. (1995). The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: A developmental perspective. Child Development, 66, 1614–1634. PubMedCrossRef Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Cherlin, A. J., & Kiernan, K. E. (1995). The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: A developmental perspective. Child Development, 66, 1614–1634. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Christian-Herman, J. L., O’Leary, K. D., & Avery-Leaf, S. (2001). The impact of severe negative events in marriage on depression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 24–40. CrossRef Christian-Herman, J. L., O’Leary, K. D., & Avery-Leaf, S. (2001). The impact of severe negative events in marriage on depression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 24–40. CrossRef
go back to reference Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (1994). Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73–122. PubMedCrossRef Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (1994). Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73–122. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Donald, M., Dower, J., Correa-Velez, I., & Jones, M. (2006). Risk and protective factors for medically serious suicide attempts: A comparison of hospital-based with population-based samples of young adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 87–96. PubMedCrossRef Donald, M., Dower, J., Correa-Velez, I., & Jones, M. (2006). Risk and protective factors for medically serious suicide attempts: A comparison of hospital-based with population-based samples of young adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 87–96. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 50–76. PubMedCrossRef Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 50–76. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fendrich, M., Warner, V., & Weissman, M. M. (1990). Family risk factors, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring. Developmental Psychology, 26, 40–50. CrossRef Fendrich, M., Warner, V., & Weissman, M. M. (1990). Family risk factors, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring. Developmental Psychology, 26, 40–50. CrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490. PubMedCrossRef Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Halligan, S. L., Murray, L., Martins, C., & Cooper, P. J. (2007). Maternal depression and psychiatric outcomes in adolescent offspring: A 13-year longitudinal study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 97, 145–154. PubMedCrossRef Halligan, S. L., Murray, L., Martins, C., & Cooper, P. J. (2007). Maternal depression and psychiatric outcomes in adolescent offspring: A 13-year longitudinal study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 97, 145–154. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. (2003). Severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depression and risk for adolescent offspring diagnoses in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 253–260. PubMedCrossRef Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. (2003). Severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depression and risk for adolescent offspring diagnoses in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 253–260. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hammen, C., Brennan, P. A., & Shih, J. H. (2004). Family discord and stress predictors of depression and other disorders in adolescent children of depressed and nondepressed women. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 994–1002. PubMedCrossRef Hammen, C., Brennan, P. A., & Shih, J. H. (2004). Family discord and stress predictors of depression and other disorders in adolescent children of depressed and nondepressed women. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 994–1002. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hanington, L., Ramchandani, P., & Stein, A. (2010). Parental depression and child temperament: Assessing child to parent effects in a longitudinal population study. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 88–95. PubMedCrossRef Hanington, L., Ramchandani, P., & Stein, A. (2010). Parental depression and child temperament: Assessing child to parent effects in a longitudinal population study. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 88–95. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hay, D. F., Pawlby, S., Sharp, D., Asten, P., Mills, A., & Kumar, R. (2001). Intellectual problems shown by 11-year-old children whose mothers had postnatal depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 871–889. CrossRef Hay, D. F., Pawlby, S., Sharp, D., Asten, P., Mills, A., & Kumar, R. (2001). Intellectual problems shown by 11-year-old children whose mothers had postnatal depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 871–889. CrossRef
go back to reference Joormann, J., Eugène, F., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Parental depression: Impact on offspring and mechanisms underlying transmission of risk. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent depression (pp. 441–471). New York: Guilford. Joormann, J., Eugène, F., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Parental depression: Impact on offspring and mechanisms underlying transmission of risk. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent depression (pp. 441–471). New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Ryan, N. D., & Rao, U. (2000). K-SADS-PL. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1208. PubMedCrossRef Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Ryan, N. D., & Rao, U. (2000). K-SADS-PL. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1208. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602. PubMedCrossRef Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kramer, R. A., Warner, V., Olfson, M., Ebanks, C. M., Chaput, F., & Weissman, M. M. (1998). General medical problems among the offspring of depressed parents: A 10-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 602–611. PubMedCrossRef Kramer, R. A., Warner, V., Olfson, M., Ebanks, C. M., Chaput, F., & Weissman, M. M. (1998). General medical problems among the offspring of depressed parents: A 10-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 602–611. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Leckman, J. F., Sholomskas, D., Thompson, D., Belanger, A., & Weissman, M. M. (1982). Best estimate of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis: A methodological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39(8), 879–883. PubMedCrossRef Leckman, J. F., Sholomskas, D., Thompson, D., Belanger, A., & Weissman, M. M. (1982). Best estimate of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis: A methodological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39(8), 879–883. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lewinsohn, P. M., Olino, T. M., & Klein, D. N. (2005). Psychosocial impairment in offspring of depressed parents. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1493–1503. PubMedCrossRef Lewinsohn, P. M., Olino, T. M., & Klein, D. N. (2005). Psychosocial impairment in offspring of depressed parents. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1493–1503. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lieb, R., Isensee, B., Hofler, M., Pfister, H., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2002). Parental major depression and the risk of depression and other mental disorders in offspring: A prospective-longitudinal community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 365–374. PubMedCrossRef Lieb, R., Isensee, B., Hofler, M., Pfister, H., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2002). Parental major depression and the risk of depression and other mental disorders in offspring: A prospective-longitudinal community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 365–374. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lin, D. Y., & Wei, L. J. (1989). The robust inference for the proportional hazards model. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 84, 1074–1078. CrossRef Lin, D. Y., & Wei, L. J. (1989). The robust inference for the proportional hazards model. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 84, 1074–1078. CrossRef
go back to reference Lizardi, D., Thompson, R. G., Keyes, K., & Hasin, D. (2009). Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197, 899–904. PubMedCrossRef Lizardi, D., Thompson, R. G., Keyes, K., & Hasin, D. (2009). Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197, 899–904. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mamun, A. A., Clavarino, A. M., Najman, J. M., Williams, G. M., O’Callaghan, M. J., & Bor, W. (2009). Maternal depression and the quality of marital relationship: A 14-year prospective study. Journal of Women’s Health, 18, 2023–2031. PubMedCrossRef Mamun, A. A., Clavarino, A. M., Najman, J. M., Williams, G. M., O’Callaghan, M. J., & Bor, W. (2009). Maternal depression and the quality of marital relationship: A 14-year prospective study. Journal of Women’s Health, 18, 2023–2031. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mannuzza, S. (1986). Schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version modified for the study of anxiety disorders (SADS-LA): Rationale and conceptual development. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 20, 317–325. PubMedCrossRef Mannuzza, S. (1986). Schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version modified for the study of anxiety disorders (SADS-LA): Rationale and conceptual development. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 20, 317–325. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nomura, Y., Wickramaratne, P. J., Warner, V., Mufson, L., & Weissman, M. M. (2002). Family discord, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring: Ten-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 402–409. PubMedCrossRef Nomura, Y., Wickramaratne, P. J., Warner, V., Mufson, L., & Weissman, M. M. (2002). Family discord, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring: Ten-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 402–409. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Orvaschel, H., Puig-Antich, J., Chambers, W., Tabrizi, M. A., & Johnson, R. (1982). Retrospective assessment of prepubertal major depression with the Kiddie-SADS-e. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 392–397. PubMedCrossRef Orvaschel, H., Puig-Antich, J., Chambers, W., Tabrizi, M. A., & Johnson, R. (1982). Retrospective assessment of prepubertal major depression with the Kiddie-SADS-e. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 392–397. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Orvaschel, H., Walsh-Allis, G., & Ye, W. J. (1988). Psychopathology in children of parents with recurrent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16(1), 17–28. PubMedCrossRef Orvaschel, H., Walsh-Allis, G., & Ye, W. J. (1988). Psychopathology in children of parents with recurrent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16(1), 17–28. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pettit, J. W., Olino, T. M., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2008). Intergenerational transmission of internalizing problems: Effects of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder on child behavior. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 640–650. PubMedCrossRef Pettit, J. W., Olino, T. M., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2008). Intergenerational transmission of internalizing problems: Effects of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder on child behavior. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 640–650. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., & Weissman, M. M. (2006). Family discord, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring: 20-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 452–460. PubMedCrossRef Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., & Weissman, M. M. (2006). Family discord, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring: 20-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 452–460. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rice, F., Harold, G. T., & Thapar, A. (2005). The Link between depression in mothers and offspring: An extended twin analysis. Behavior Genetics, 35, 565–577. PubMedCrossRef Rice, F., Harold, G. T., & Thapar, A. (2005). The Link between depression in mothers and offspring: An extended twin analysis. Behavior Genetics, 35, 565–577. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Silberg, J. L., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. J. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on the transmission of parental depression to children’s depression and conduct disturbance: An extended Children of Twins study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 734–744. PubMedCrossRef Silberg, J. L., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. J. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on the transmission of parental depression to children’s depression and conduct disturbance: An extended Children of Twins study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 734–744. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Silk, J. S., Shaw, D. S., Skuban, E. M., Oland, A. A., & Kovacs, M. (2006). Emotion regulation strategies in offspring of childhood-onset depressed mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 69–78. PubMedCrossRef Silk, J. S., Shaw, D. S., Skuban, E. M., Oland, A. A., & Kovacs, M. (2006). Emotion regulation strategies in offspring of childhood-onset depressed mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 69–78. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Silverstein, M., & Ruiz, S. (2006). Breaking the chain: How grandparents moderate the transmission of maternal depression to their grandchildren. Family Relations, 55, 601–612. CrossRef Silverstein, M., & Ruiz, S. (2006). Breaking the chain: How grandparents moderate the transmission of maternal depression to their grandchildren. Family Relations, 55, 601–612. CrossRef
go back to reference Teti, D. M., Gelfand, D. M., Messinger, D. S., & Isabella, R. (1995). Maternal depression and the quality of early attachment: An examination of infants, preschoolers, and their mothers. Developmental Psychology, 31, 364–376. CrossRef Teti, D. M., Gelfand, D. M., Messinger, D. S., & Isabella, R. (1995). Maternal depression and the quality of early attachment: An examination of infants, preschoolers, and their mothers. Developmental Psychology, 31, 364–376. CrossRef
go back to reference Warner, V., Weissman, M. M., Mufson, L., & Wickramaratne, P. J. (1999). Grandparents, parents, and grandchildren at high risk for depression: A three-generation study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 289–296. PubMedCrossRef Warner, V., Weissman, M. M., Mufson, L., & Wickramaratne, P. J. (1999). Grandparents, parents, and grandchildren at high risk for depression: A three-generation study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 289–296. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Weissman, M. M., Fendrich, M., Warner, V., & Wickramaratne, P. (1992). Incidence of psychiatric disorder in offspring at high and low risk for depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 640–648. PubMedCrossRef Weissman, M. M., Fendrich, M., Warner, V., & Wickramaratne, P. (1992). Incidence of psychiatric disorder in offspring at high and low risk for depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 640–648. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Weissman, M. M., Gammon, G. D., John, K., Merikangas, K. R., Warner, V., Prusoff, B. A., et al. (1987). Children of depressed parents. Increased psychopathology and early onset of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 847–853. PubMedCrossRef Weissman, M. M., Gammon, G. D., John, K., Merikangas, K. R., Warner, V., Prusoff, B. A., et al. (1987). Children of depressed parents. Increased psychopathology and early onset of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 847–853. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Weissman, M. M., Kidd, K. K., & Prusoff, B. A. (1982). Variability in rates of affective disorders in relatives of depressed and normal probands. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1397–1403. PubMedCrossRef Weissman, M. M., Kidd, K. K., & Prusoff, B. A. (1982). Variability in rates of affective disorders in relatives of depressed and normal probands. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1397–1403. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Weissman, M. M., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., Moreau, D., & Olfson, M. (1997). Offspring of depressed parents: 10 years later. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 932–940. PubMedCrossRef Weissman, M. M., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., Moreau, D., & Olfson, M. (1997). Offspring of depressed parents: 10 years later. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 932–940. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Warner, V., Pilowsky, D., & Verdeli, H. (2006). Offspring of depressed parents: 20 years later. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1001–1008. PubMedCrossRef Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Warner, V., Pilowsky, D., & Verdeli, H. (2006). Offspring of depressed parents: 20 years later. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1001–1008. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Warner, V., Verdeli, H., Pilowsky, D. J., et al. (2005). Families at high and low risk for depression: A 3-generation study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 29–36. PubMedCrossRef Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Warner, V., Verdeli, H., Pilowsky, D. J., et al. (2005). Families at high and low risk for depression: A 3-generation study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 29–36. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Parental Divorce, Familial Risk for Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: A Three-Generation Study
Auteurs
Eleni Vousoura
Helen Verdeli
Virginia Warner
Priya Wickramaratne
Charles David Richard Baily
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2012
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 5/2012
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9523-7

Andere artikelen Uitgave 5/2012

Journal of Child and Family Studies 5/2012 Naar de uitgave