Previous research suggested that parental behavioral control and psychological control have differential associations with adolescents’ peer victimization. However, given that these two types of parental control are somewhat related but distinct from each other, it is critical to distinguish the unique relationship between each form of parental control and peer victimization. Furthermore, the mediating mechanism between parental control and peer victimization has not been thoroughly examined. The present study was designed to examine the unique associations of parental behavioral control and psychological control with Chinese adolescents’ peer victimization, as well as the mediating role of self-control. A total of 694 7th–9th grade middle school students in China (M age = 13.67, SD = 1.20) participated the survey by completing questionnaires about demographics, parental control, self-control, and peer victimization. Results indicated that: psychological control had positive associations with both overt and relational victimization, and these associations were partially mediated by adolescents’ self control. In contrast, behavioral control was positively associated with self-control, which in turn negatively associated with peer victimization. On the other hand, behavioral control was positively associated with peer victimization. Hence, an inconsistent mediation was found due to the opposite signs and the same magnitudes of the direct and indirect relationships between behavioral control and peer victimization. These findings suggest that parental behavioral control and psychological control contribute to adolescents’ peer victimization through different mediating mechanisms.