Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Research suggests that parental reflective functioning—the parent’s capacity to envision the mind of his/her child—may play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of attachment and reflective functioning. Studies also suggest the importance of this capacity for the transition to parenthood, and particularly parents’ capacity to deal with parenting stress. This study focused on the potential mediating role of PRF dimensions in the relationship between parental attachment dimensions (attachment anxiety and avoidance) and parenting stress, using data from a 1-year longitudinal study in biological first-time parents (N = 106). Structural equation modeling showed that parents’ use of prementalizing modes of reflecting upon their child (PM) fully mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and three parenting stress dimensions (marital relationship, role restriction, and social isolation) across a 1-year interval, while attachment avoidance was indirectly related to these parenting stress dimensions through PM. Further, PM partially mediated the relationship between parental attachment anxiety and avoidance and a fourth dimension of parenting stress, lack of trust in parental competence. In addition, multi-group analyses revealed some interesting gender differences. Implications of these findings for the conceptualization of the relationship between parental attachment, PRF, and parenting stress are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Abidin, R. R. (1992). The determinants of parenting behavior. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 407–412. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2104_12. CrossRef
Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index: Professional manual. 3rd ed. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Arnott, B., & Meins, E. (2007). Links among antenatal attachment representations, postnatal mind–mindedness, and infant attachment security: A preliminary study of mothers and fathers. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 71, 132–149. https://doi.org/10.1521/bumc.2007.71.2.132. CrossRefPubMed
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a 4-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226–244. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.168. CrossRefPubMed
Belsky, J., Fearon, P. R. M., & Bell, B. (2007). Parenting, attention and externalizing problems: testing mediation longitudinally, repeatedly and reciprocally. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 1233–1242. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01807.x. CrossRefPubMed
Blatt, S. J. (2004). Experiences of depression: Theoretical, clinical, and research perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Borelli, J. L., West, J. L., Decoste, C., & Suchman, N. E. (2012). Emotionally avoidant language in the parenting interviews of substance-dependent mothers: Associations with reflective functioning, recent substance use, and parenting behavior. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 506–519. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21340. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming.. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Casalin, S., Luyten, P., Besser, A., Wouters, S., & Vliegen, N. (2014). A longitudinal cross-lagged study of the role of parental self-criticism, dependency, depression, and parenting stress in the development of child negative affectivity. Self and Identity, 13, 491–511. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2013.873076. CrossRef
Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558–577. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.558. CrossRefPubMed
de Cock, E. S. A., Henrichs, J., Klimstra, T. A., Maas, A. J. B. M., Vreeswijk, C. M. J. M., Meeus, W. H. J., & van Bakel, H. J. A. (2017). Longitudinal associations between parental bonding, parenting stress, and executive functioning in toddlerhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 1723–1733. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0679-7. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
de Brock, A. J. L. L., Vermulst, A. A., Gerris, J. R. M., & Abidin, R. R. (1992). NOSI: Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index. Handleiding. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Deater-Deckard, K. (1998). Parenting stress and child adjustment: Some old hypotheses and new questions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5, 314–332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00152.x.
Deater-Deckard, K. (2004). Parenting stress. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. CrossRef
Epifanio, M. S., Genna, V., De Luca, C., Roccella, M., & La Grutta, S. (2015). Paternal and maternal transition to parenthood: the risk of postpartum depression and parenting stress. 7, https://doi.org/10.4081/pr.2015.5872
Fallucco, E. M., Aldridge, P., Greco, P., & Blackmore, E. R. (2016). Parenting stress and early childhood behavioral and emotional problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, S114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.09.046. CrossRef
Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Moran, G. S., & Higgitt, A. C. (1991). The capacity for understanding mental states: The reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 12, 201–218. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0355(199123)12:3<201::Aid-Imhj2280120307>3.0.Co;2-7. CrossRef
Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Airport separations: A naturalistic study of adult attachment dynamics in separating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1198–1212. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1248. CrossRef
Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350–365. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1990. CrossRefPubMed
Goyette-Ewing, M., Slade, A., Knoebber, K., Gilliam, W., Truman, S., & Mayes, L. (2003). Parents First: A developmental parenting program. Unpublished Manuscript. Yale Child Study Center.
Grienenberger, J. F., Kelly, K., & Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, mother-infant affective communication, and infant attachment: Exploring the link between mental states and observed caregiving behavior in the intergenerational transmission of attachment. Attachment and Human Development, 7, 299–311. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730500245963. CrossRefPubMed
Hassall, R., Rose, J., & McDonald, J. (2005). Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 405–418. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00673.x. CrossRefPubMed
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6, 53–60.
Kalland, M., Fagerlund, Å., von Koskull, M., & Pajulo, M. (2015). Families First: the development of a new mentalization-based group intervention for first-time parents to promote child development and family health. Primary Health Care Research & Development, FirstView, 1–15.
Luyten, P., Mayes, L., Sadler, L., Fonagy, P., Nicholls, S., Crowley, M. et al. (2009). The Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire-1 (PRFQ). Unpublished manuscript.
Luyten, P., Mayes, L. C., Nijssens, L., & Fonagy, P. (2017a). The parental reflective functioning questionnaire: Development and preliminary validation. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176218. (open access).
Luyten, P., Nijssens, L., Fonagy, P., & Mayes, L. C. (2017b). Parental reflective functioning: Theory, research, and clinical applications. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 70, 174–199. https://doi.org/10.1080/00797308.2016.1277901. CrossRef
Maunder, R. G., Lancee, W. J., Nolan, R. P., Hunter, J. J., & Tannenbaum, D. W. (2006). The relationship of attachment insecurity to subjective stress and autonomic function during standardized acute stress in healthy adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 283–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.08.013. CrossRefPubMed
Mazzeschi, C., Pazzagli, C., Radi, G., Raspa, V., & Buratta, L. (2015). Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers. Frontiers in Psychology, 6 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01443
McMahon, C. A., & Meins, E. (2012). Mind-mindedness, parenting stress, and emotional availability in mothers of preschoolers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 245–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.08.002. CrossRef
Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Mills-Koonce, W. R., Appleyard, K., Barnett, M., Deng, M., Putallaz, M., & Cox, M. (2011). Adult attachment style and stress as risk factors for early maternal sensitivity and negativity. Infant Mental Health Journal, 32, 277–285. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20296. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Muthén, B., & Satorra, A. (1995). Complex sample data in structural equation modeling. Sociological Methodology, 25, 267–316. CrossRef
Muthén, L. (1999). Mplus discussion of mulitlevel data and complex samples: Intraclass correlations, from http://www.statmodel.com/discussion/messages/12/18.html
Nelson, J. A., O’Brien, M., Blankson, A. N., Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2009). Family stress and parental responses to children’s negative emotions: Tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 671–679. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015977. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Nijssens, L., Luyten, P., & Bales, D. L. (2012). Mentalization-based treatment for parents (MBT-P) with borderline personality disorder and their infants. In N. Midgley & I. Vrouva (Eds.), Keeping children in mind: Mentalization-based interventions with children, young people and their families (pp. 79–97). New York: Routledge.
Nygren, M., Carstensen, J., Ludvigsson, J., & Frostell, A. S. (2012). Adult attachment and parenting stress among parents of toddlers. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 30, 289–302. https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2012.717264. CrossRef
Ordway, M. R., Sadler, L. S., Dixon, J., Close, N., Mayes, L., & Slade, A. (2014). Lasting effects of an interdisciplinary home visiting program on child behavior: Preliminary follow-up results of a randomized trial. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2013.04.006.
Pajulo, M., Pyykkönen, N., Kalland, M., Sinkkonen, J., Helenius, H., Punamäki, R.-L., & Suchman, N. E. (2012). Substance-abusing mothers in residential treatment with their babies: Importance of pre- and postnatal maternal reflective funtioning. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 70–81. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20342. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., & Blakely, B. S. (1995). Adult attachment styles and mothers’ relationships with their young children. Personal Relationships, 2, 35–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.1995.tb00076.x. CrossRef
Rutherford, H. J. V., Booth, C. R., Luyten, P., Bridgett, D. J., & Mayes, L. C. (2015). Investigating the association between parental reflective functioning and distress tolerance in motherhood. Infant Behavior and Development, 40, 54–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.04.005. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Rutherford, H. J. V., Goldberg, B., Luyten, P., Bridgett, D. J., & Mayes, L. C. (2013). Parental reflective functioning is associated with tolerance of infant distress but not general distress: Evidence for a specific relationship using a simulated baby paradigm. Infant Behavior and Development, 36, 635–641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.06.008. CrossRefPubMed
Sadler, L. S., Slade, A., Close, N., Webb, D. L., Simpson, T., Fennie, K., & Mayes, L. C. (2013). Minding the Baby: Enhancing reflectiveness to improve early health and relationship outcomes in an interdisciplinary home-visiting program. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34, 391–405. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21406. CrossRefPubMed
Sadler, L. S., Slade, A., & Mayes, L. (2006). Minding the Baby: A Mentalization based parenting program. In J. Allen & P. Fonagy (Eds.), Handbook of Mentalization Based Treatment. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Schneider-Hassloff, H., Straube, B., Nuscheler, B., Wemken, G., & Kircher, T. (2015). Adult attachment style modulates neural responses in a mentalizing task. Neuroscience, 303, 462–473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.06.062. CrossRefPubMed
Sharp, C., & Fonagy, P. (2008). The parent’s capacity to treat the child as a psychological agent: Constructs, measures and implications for developmental psychopathology. Social Development, 17, 737–754. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00457.x. CrossRef
Sibley, C. G., Fischer, R., & Liu, J. H. (2005). Reliability and validity of the revised experiences in close relationships (ECR-R) self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1524–1536. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167205276865. CrossRefPubMed
Sibley, C. G., & Liu, J. H. (2004). Short-term temporal stability and factor structure of the revised experiences in close relationships (ECR-R) measure of adult attachment. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 969–975. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00165-X. CrossRef
Slade, A., Sadler, L., de Dios-Kenn, C., Webb, D., Ezepchick, J., & Mayes, L. (2005). Minding the baby: A reflective parenting program. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 60.
Sleed, M., Baradon, T., & Fonagy, P. (2013). New Beginnings for mothers and babies in prison: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Attachment & Human Development, 15, 349–367. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2013.782651. CrossRef
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290–312. CrossRef
Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Luyten, P. (2010). Toward a domain-specific approach to the study of parental psychological control: Distinguishing between dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control. Journal of Personality, 78, 217–256. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00614.x. CrossRefPubMed
Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 893–898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.017. CrossRef
Suchman, N. E., DeCoste, C., Castiglioni, N., McMahon, T. J., Rounsaville, B., & Mayes, L. (2010). The Mothers and Toddlers Program, an attachment-based parenting intervention for substance using women: Post-treatment results from a randomized clinical pilot. Attachment & Human Development, 12, 483–504. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2010.501983. CrossRef
Suchman, N. E., Decoste, C., McMahon, T. J., Rounsaville, B., & Mayes, L. (2011). The mothers and toddlers program, an attachment-based parenting intervention for substance-using women: Results at 6-week follow-up in a randomized clinical pilot. Infant Mental Health Journal, 32, 427–449. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20303. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Thomason, E., Volling, B. L., Flynn, H. A., McDonough, S. C., Marcus, S. M., Lopez, J. F., & Vazquez, D. M. (2014). Parenting stress and depressive symptoms in postpartum mothers: bidirectional or unidirectional effects? Infant Behavior and Development, 37, 406–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.05.009. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Vieira, J. M., Avila, M., & Matos, P. M. (2012). Attachment and parenting: The mediating role of work-family balance in Portuguese parents of preschool children. Family Relations, 61, 31–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2011.00680.x. CrossRef
- Parental Attachment Dimensions and Parenting Stress: The Mediating Role of Parental Reflective Functioning
- Springer US