Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

01-08-2008

Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning Across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

Auteurs: Rapson Gomez, Alasdair Vance

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 6/2008

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation modeling procedure. Although DSF was found for a single inattention (IA) symptom and three hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms, all these differences had low effect sizes. Controlling for these DSF, Chinese children had higher IA and HI latent factor scores. However the effect sizes were small. Together, these findings suggest adequate support for invariance of the ADHD symptoms across these ethno-cultural groups. The implications of the findings for cross-cultural invariance of the ADHD symptoms are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference Allik, J., & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Toward a geography of personality traits: patterns of profiles across 36 cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 13–28.CrossRef Allik, J., & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Toward a geography of personality traits: patterns of profiles across 36 cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 13–28.CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders – IV text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders – IV text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Anastopoulos, A. D., & Shelton, T. L. (2001). Assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. New York: Kluwer. Anastopoulos, A. D., & Shelton, T. L. (2001). Assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. New York: Kluwer.
go back to reference Ang, P. R. (2006). Effects of parenting style on personal and social variables for Asian adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 503–511.PubMedCrossRef Ang, P. R. (2006). Effects of parenting style on personal and social variables for Asian adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 503–511.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford. Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Barrett, P. (2007). Structural equation modeling: Adjusting model fit. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 815–824.CrossRef Barrett, P. (2007). Structural equation modeling: Adjusting model fit. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 815–824.CrossRef
go back to reference Bao, K. B., & Xu, Q. M. (2006). A comparison of attachment in adolescents in mainland China and Malaysia. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 14, 172–174. Bao, K. B., & Xu, Q. M. (2006). A comparison of attachment in adolescents in mainland China and Malaysia. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 14, 172–174.
go back to reference Beiser, M., Dion, R., & Gotowiec, A. (2000). The structure of attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms among native and non-native elementary school children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 425–437.PubMedCrossRef Beiser, M., Dion, R., & Gotowiec, A. (2000). The structure of attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms among native and non-native elementary school children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 425–437.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.PubMedCrossRef Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bird, H. R. (2002). The diagnostic classification, epidemiology and cross-cultural validity of ADHD. In P. Jenson, & J. Cooper (Eds.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: State of the science: Best practice. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute. Bird, H. R. (2002). The diagnostic classification, epidemiology and cross-cultural validity of ADHD. In P. Jenson, & J. Cooper (Eds.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: State of the science: Best practice. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
go back to reference Bernard, H. R. (1988). Research methods in cultural anthropology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Bernard, H. R. (1988). Research methods in cultural anthropology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Brislin, R. (1970). Back translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216.CrossRef Brislin, R. (1970). Back translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216.CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Burns, G. L., & Walsh, J. A. (2002). The influence of ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms on the development of oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in a two year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 245–256.PubMedCrossRef Burns, G. L., & Walsh, J. A. (2002). The influence of ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms on the development of oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in a two year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 245–256.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Burns, G. L., Walsh, J. A., & Gomez, R. (2003). Convergent and discriminant validity of trait and source effects in ADHD-inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity measures across a 3-month interval. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 529–541.PubMedCrossRef Burns, G. L., Walsh, J. A., & Gomez, R. (2003). Convergent and discriminant validity of trait and source effects in ADHD-inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity measures across a 3-month interval. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 529–541.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Burns, L. G., Walsh, J. A., Gomez, R., & Hafetz, N. (2006). Measurement and structural invariance of parent ratings of the ADHD and ODD symptoms across gender for American and Malaysian children. Psychological Assessment, 18, 452–457.PubMedCrossRef Burns, L. G., Walsh, J. A., Gomez, R., & Hafetz, N. (2006). Measurement and structural invariance of parent ratings of the ADHD and ODD symptoms across gender for American and Malaysian children. Psychological Assessment, 18, 452–457.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Butcher, J. N. (1996). Translation and adaptation of the MMPI-2 for international use. In J. N. Butcher (Ed.), International adaptations of the MMPI-2: Research and clinical applications (pp. 26–43). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Butcher, J. N. (1996). Translation and adaptation of the MMPI-2 for international use. In J. N. Butcher (Ed.), International adaptations of the MMPI-2: Research and clinical applications (pp. 26–43). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
go back to reference Chang, W. C., Wong, W. K., & Koh, B. K. J. (2003). Chinese values in Singapore: Traditional and modern. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 6, 5–29.CrossRef Chang, W. C., Wong, W. K., & Koh, B. K. J. (2003). Chinese values in Singapore: Traditional and modern. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 6, 5–29.CrossRef
go back to reference Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting styles: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1120.PubMedCrossRef Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting styles: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1120.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2000). Assessing extreme and acquiescence response sets in cross-cultural research using structural equation modeling. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 187–212.CrossRef Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2000). Assessing extreme and acquiescence response sets in cross-cultural research using structural equation modeling. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 187–212.CrossRef
go back to reference Cheung, S. F., Cheung, F. M., Howard, R., & Lim, Y. H. (2006). Personality across the ethnic divide in Singapore. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 467–477.CrossRef Cheung, S. F., Cheung, F. M., Howard, R., & Lim, Y. H. (2006). Personality across the ethnic divide in Singapore. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 467–477.CrossRef
go back to reference Department of Statistics Malaysia (2003). Population and housing census of Malaysia: Education and social characteristics of the population. Kuala Lumpur: Government of Malaysia. Department of Statistics Malaysia (2003). Population and housing census of Malaysia: Education and social characteristics of the population. Kuala Lumpur: Government of Malaysia.
go back to reference Dalhan, H. M. (1991). Local values in intercultural management. Malaysian Management Review, 1, 45–50. Dalhan, H. M. (1991). Local values in intercultural management. Malaysian Management Review, 1, 45–50.
go back to reference DuPaul, G. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Power, T. J., Reid, R., McGoey, K. E., & Ikeda, M. J. (1998). Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms: Factor structure, normative data, and psychometric properties. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 20, 83–102.CrossRef DuPaul, G. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Power, T. J., Reid, R., McGoey, K. E., & Ikeda, M. J. (1998). Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms: Factor structure, normative data, and psychometric properties. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 20, 83–102.CrossRef
go back to reference DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Reid, R., McGoey, K. E., & Ikeda, M. J. (1997). Teacher ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data. Psychological Assessment, 9, 436–444.CrossRef DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Reid, R., McGoey, K. E., & Ikeda, M. J. (1997). Teacher ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data. Psychological Assessment, 9, 436–444.CrossRef
go back to reference Dwivedi, K. N., & Banhatti, R. G. (2005). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and ethnicity. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 90, 10–12.CrossRef Dwivedi, K. N., & Banhatti, R. G. (2005). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and ethnicity. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 90, 10–12.CrossRef
go back to reference Faraone, S. V., Sergeant, J., Gillberg, C., & Biederman, J. (2003). The world wide prevalence of ADHD: Is it an American condition? World Psychiatry, 2, 104–113.PubMed Faraone, S. V., Sergeant, J., Gillberg, C., & Biederman, J. (2003). The world wide prevalence of ADHD: Is it an American condition? World Psychiatry, 2, 104–113.PubMed
go back to reference Gomez, R. (2008). Invariance of parent ratings of the ADHD symptoms in Australian and Malaysian, and North European Australian and Malay Malaysia Children: A mean and covariance structures analysis approach. Journal of Attention Disorders, (in press). Gomez, R. (2008). Invariance of parent ratings of the ADHD symptoms in Australian and Malaysian, and North European Australian and Malay Malaysia Children: A mean and covariance structures analysis approach. Journal of Attention Disorders, (in press).
go back to reference Gomez, R., Burns, G. L., Walsh, J. A., & Hafetz, N. (2005). A multitrait-multisource confirmatory factor analytic approach to the construct validity of ADHD and ODD rating scales with Malaysian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 241–254.PubMedCrossRef Gomez, R., Burns, G. L., Walsh, J. A., & Hafetz, N. (2005). A multitrait-multisource confirmatory factor analytic approach to the construct validity of ADHD and ODD rating scales with Malaysian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 241–254.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gomez, R., Burns, G. L., Walsh, J. A., & Moura, M. A. (2003). A multitrait-multisource confirmatory factor analytic approach to the construct validity of the ADHD rating scales. Psychological Assessment, 15, 3–16.PubMedCrossRef Gomez, R., Burns, G. L., Walsh, J. A., & Moura, M. A. (2003). A multitrait-multisource confirmatory factor analytic approach to the construct validity of the ADHD rating scales. Psychological Assessment, 15, 3–16.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gomez, R., Harvey, J., Quick, C., Scharer, I., & Harris, G. (1999). DSM-IV AD/HD: Confirmatory factor models, prevalence, and gender and age differences based on parent and teacher ratings of Australian primary school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 265–274.PubMedCrossRef Gomez, R., Harvey, J., Quick, C., Scharer, I., & Harris, G. (1999). DSM-IV AD/HD: Confirmatory factor models, prevalence, and gender and age differences based on parent and teacher ratings of Australian primary school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 265–274.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Herrera, R. S., DelCampo, R. L., & Ames, M. H. (1993). A serial approach for translating family science instrumentations. Family Relations, 42, 357–360.CrossRef Herrera, R. S., DelCampo, R. L., & Ames, M. H. (1993). A serial approach for translating family science instrumentations. Family Relations, 42, 357–360.CrossRef
go back to reference Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: international differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: international differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut-off criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRef Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut-off criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRef
go back to reference Joreskog, K. G., & Goldberger, A. S. (1975). Estimation of a model with multiple indicators and multiple causes of a single latent variable. Journal of American Statistical Association, 70, 631–639.CrossRef Joreskog, K. G., & Goldberger, A. S. (1975). Estimation of a model with multiple indicators and multiple causes of a single latent variable. Journal of American Statistical Association, 70, 631–639.CrossRef
go back to reference King, A. C. Y. (1992). Zhongguo Shehui Yu Wenhua (Chinese Society and Culture). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press. King, A. C. Y. (1992). Zhongguo Shehui Yu Wenhua (Chinese Society and Culture). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press.
go back to reference Kirmayer, L. J. (1998). Editorial: the fate of culture in DSM-IV. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35, 339–342.CrossRef Kirmayer, L. J. (1998). Editorial: the fate of culture in DSM-IV. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35, 339–342.CrossRef
go back to reference Little, T. D. (1997). Mean and covariance structures (MACS) analyses of cross-cultural data: Practical and theoretical issues. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32, 53–76.CrossRef Little, T. D. (1997). Mean and covariance structures (MACS) analyses of cross-cultural data: Practical and theoretical issues. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32, 53–76.CrossRef
go back to reference Livingston, R. (1999). Cultural issues in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1591–1594.CrossRef Livingston, R. (1999). Cultural issues in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1591–1594.CrossRef
go back to reference Lopez, S. R., & Guarnaccia, P. J. J. (2000). Cultural psychopathology. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 571–598.PubMedCrossRef Lopez, S. R., & Guarnaccia, P. J. J. (2000). Cultural psychopathology. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 571–598.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 20–341.CrossRef Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 20–341.CrossRef
go back to reference Meade, A. W., & Lautenschlager, G. J. (2004). A comparison of item response theory and confirmatory factor analytic methodologies for establishing measurement equivalence/invariance. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 361–388.CrossRef Meade, A. W., & Lautenschlager, G. J. (2004). A comparison of item response theory and confirmatory factor analytic methodologies for establishing measurement equivalence/invariance. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 361–388.CrossRef
go back to reference Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58, 525–543.CrossRef Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58, 525–543.CrossRef
go back to reference Mezzich, J. E., Kleinman, A., Fabrega, H., & Parron, D. L. (Eds.) (1996). Culture and psychiatric diagnosis. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Mezzich, J. E., Kleinman, A., Fabrega, H., & Parron, D. L. (Eds.) (1996). Culture and psychiatric diagnosis. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Millsap, R. E., & Everson, H. T. (1993). Methodology review: Statistical approaches for assessing measurement bias. Applied Psychological Measurement, 17, 297–334.CrossRef Millsap, R. E., & Everson, H. T. (1993). Methodology review: Statistical approaches for assessing measurement bias. Applied Psychological Measurement, 17, 297–334.CrossRef
go back to reference Mulaik, S. (2007). There is a place for approximate fit in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 883–895.CrossRef Mulaik, S. (2007). There is a place for approximate fit in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 883–895.CrossRef
go back to reference Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2006). Mplus user’s guide (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen. Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2006). Mplus user’s guide (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.
go back to reference Pillow, D. R., Pelham Jr., W. E., Hoza, B., Molina, B. S. G., & Stutz, C. H. (1999). Confirmatory factor analyses examining attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and other childhood disruptive behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 293–309.CrossRef Pillow, D. R., Pelham Jr., W. E., Hoza, B., Molina, B. S. G., & Stutz, C. H. (1999). Confirmatory factor analyses examining attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and other childhood disruptive behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 293–309.CrossRef
go back to reference Power, T. J., Andrews, T. J., Eiraldi, R. B., Doherty, B. J., Ikeda, B., & DuPaul, G. J. (1998). Evaluating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using multiple informants: the incremental utility of combining teacher with parent reports. Psychological Assessment, 10, 250–260.CrossRef Power, T. J., Andrews, T. J., Eiraldi, R. B., Doherty, B. J., Ikeda, B., & DuPaul, G. J. (1998). Evaluating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using multiple informants: the incremental utility of combining teacher with parent reports. Psychological Assessment, 10, 250–260.CrossRef
go back to reference Quah, S. R. (2004). Ethnicity and parenting styles among Singapore families. Marriage & Family Review, 35, 63–83.CrossRef Quah, S. R. (2004). Ethnicity and parenting styles among Singapore families. Marriage & Family Review, 35, 63–83.CrossRef
go back to reference Raju, N. S., Laffitte, L. J., & Byrne, B. M. (2002). Measurement equivalence: a comparison of methods based on confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 517–529.PubMedCrossRef Raju, N. S., Laffitte, L. J., & Byrne, B. M. (2002). Measurement equivalence: a comparison of methods based on confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 517–529.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Reid, R. (1995). Assessment of ADHD with culturally different groups: The uses of behavioral rating scales. School Psychology Review, 24, 537–560. Reid, R. (1995). Assessment of ADHD with culturally different groups: The uses of behavioral rating scales. School Psychology Review, 24, 537–560.
go back to reference Reid, R., DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Rogers-Ackinson, D., Noll, M. B., et al. (1998). Assessing culturally different students for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using behavioral rating scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 187–198.PubMedCrossRef Reid, R., DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Rogers-Ackinson, D., Noll, M. B., et al. (1998). Assessing culturally different students for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using behavioral rating scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 187–198.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Reise, S. P., Widaman, K. F., & Paugh, P. H. (1993). Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory: two approaches for exploring measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 552–566.PubMedCrossRef Reise, S. P., Widaman, K. F., & Paugh, P. H. (1993). Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory: two approaches for exploring measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 552–566.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Reise, S. P., Smith, L., & Furr, R. M. (2001). Invariance on the NEO PI-R neuroticism scale. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 83–110.CrossRef Reise, S. P., Smith, L., & Furr, R. M. (2001). Invariance on the NEO PI-R neuroticism scale. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 83–110.CrossRef
go back to reference Stansfield, C. W. (2003). Test translation and adaptation in public education in the USA. Language Testing, 20, 189–207.CrossRef Stansfield, C. W. (2003). Test translation and adaptation in public education in the USA. Language Testing, 20, 189–207.CrossRef
go back to reference Sprafkin, J., Gadow, K. D., & Nolan, E. E. (2001). The utility of the DSM-IV-Referenced Screening Instrument for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9, 182–191.CrossRef Sprafkin, J., Gadow, K. D., & Nolan, E. E. (2001). The utility of the DSM-IV-Referenced Screening Instrument for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9, 182–191.CrossRef
go back to reference Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173–180.CrossRef Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173–180.CrossRef
go back to reference Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 893–898.CrossRef Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 893–898.CrossRef
go back to reference Tamimi, S., & Taylor, E. (2004). ADHD is best understood as a cultural construct. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 8–9.CrossRef Tamimi, S., & Taylor, E. (2004). ADHD is best understood as a cultural construct. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 8–9.CrossRef
go back to reference Tu, W. M. (1979). Humanity and self cultivation: essays in Confucian thought. Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press. Tu, W. M. (1979). Humanity and self cultivation: essays in Confucian thought. Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press.
go back to reference Tu, W. M. (2003). Multiple modernities: A preliminary inquiry into the implications of East Asian modernity. In L. E. Harrison, & S. P. Huntington (Eds.), Culture matters: How value shape human process (pp. 256–267). New York: Basic Books. Tu, W. M. (2003). Multiple modernities: A preliminary inquiry into the implications of East Asian modernity. In L. E. Harrison, & S. P. Huntington (Eds.), Culture matters: How value shape human process (pp. 256–267). New York: Basic Books.
go back to reference Wender, E. (2004). ADHD symptoms and parent-teacher agreement. (Commentary). Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 25, 48–49.CrossRef Wender, E. (2004). ADHD symptoms and parent-teacher agreement. (Commentary). Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 25, 48–49.CrossRef
go back to reference Wolraich, M. L., Lambert, E. W., & Baumgaertel, A. (2003). Teachers’ screening for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Comparing multinational samples on teacher ratings of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 445–455.PubMedCrossRef Wolraich, M. L., Lambert, E. W., & Baumgaertel, A. (2003). Teachers’ screening for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Comparing multinational samples on teacher ratings of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 445–455.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wolraich, M. L., Lambert, E. W., Bickman, L., Simmons, T., Doffing, M. A., & Woricy, K. A. (2004). Assessing the impact of parent and teacher agreement on diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 25, 41–47.PubMedCrossRef Wolraich, M. L., Lambert, E. W., Bickman, L., Simmons, T., Doffing, M. A., & Woricy, K. A. (2004). Assessing the impact of parent and teacher agreement on diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 25, 41–47.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yang, K. S. (1988). Will modernization eventually eliminate cross-cultural psychological differences? In M. H. Bond (Ed.) The cross-cultural challenge to social psychology, cross-cultural research and methodology series (vol. 11). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Yang, K. S. (1988). Will modernization eventually eliminate cross-cultural psychological differences? In M. H. Bond (Ed.) The cross-cultural challenge to social psychology, cross-cultural research and methodology series (vol. 11). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Yuan, K. H. (2005). Fit indices versus test statistics. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40, 115–148.CrossRef Yuan, K. H. (2005). Fit indices versus test statistics. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40, 115–148.CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning Across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children
Auteurs
Rapson Gomez
Alasdair Vance
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2008
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 6/2008
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9226-8

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2008

Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 6/2008 Naar de uitgave