Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development 4/2015

01-08-2015 | Original Article

Parent Emotion Socialization Practices and Child Self-regulation as Predictors of Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Cardiac Variability

Auteurs: Sarah R. Williams, Janet Woodruff-Borden

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development | Uitgave 4/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The importance of the parent–child relationship in emotional development is well supported. The parental role of facilitating a child’s self-regulation may provide a more focused approach for examining the role of parenting in child anxiety. The current study hypothesized that parent emotion socialization practices would predict a child’s abilities in self-regulation. Given that physiological arousal has been implicated in emotional development, this was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child emotion regulation to predict child anxiety. Eighty-five parent and child dyads participated in the study. Parents reporting higher degrees of unsupportive emotion socialization were more likely to have children with fewer abilities in emotion regulation. Cardiac responsiveness mediated the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation. The model of cardiac responsiveness mediating the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation failed to reach statistical significance in predicting child anxiety symptoms.

Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:

BSL Psychologie Totaal

Met BSL Psychologie Totaal blijf je als professional steeds op de hoogte van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen binnen jouw vak. Met het online abonnement heb je toegang tot een groot aantal boeken, protocollen, vaktijdschriften en e-learnings op het gebied van psychologie en psychiatrie. Zo kun je op je gemak en wanneer het jou het beste uitkomt verdiepen in jouw vakgebied.

Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Beidel DC, Turner SM (1997) At risk for anxiety: I Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:918–924 PubMedCrossRef Beidel DC, Turner SM (1997) At risk for anxiety: I Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:918–924 PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Bosquet M, Egeland B (2006) The development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms from infancy through adolescence in a longitudinal sample. Dev Psychopathol 18:517–550 PubMedCrossRef Bosquet M, Egeland B (2006) The development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms from infancy through adolescence in a longitudinal sample. Dev Psychopathol 18:517–550 PubMedCrossRef
3.
go back to reference Chavira DA, Stein MB, Bailey K, Stein MT (2004) Child anxiety in primary care: prevalent but untreated. Depress Anxiety 20:155–164 PubMedCrossRef Chavira DA, Stein MB, Bailey K, Stein MT (2004) Child anxiety in primary care: prevalent but untreated. Depress Anxiety 20:155–164 PubMedCrossRef
4.
go back to reference McLoone J, Hudson JL, Rapee RM (2006) Treating anxiety disorders in a school setting. Educ Treat Child 29:219–242 McLoone J, Hudson JL, Rapee RM (2006) Treating anxiety disorders in a school setting. Educ Treat Child 29:219–242
5.
go back to reference Rapee RM, Schniering C, Hudson JL (2009) Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: origins ad treatment. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 5:311–341 PubMedCrossRef Rapee RM, Schniering C, Hudson JL (2009) Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: origins ad treatment. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 5:311–341 PubMedCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Eley TC, Vasey MW, Dadds MR (2001) Contributions of behavioral genetics research: quantifying genetic, shared environmental and nonshared environmental influences. In: Vasey MW, Dadds MR (eds) The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 45–59 Eley TC, Vasey MW, Dadds MR (2001) Contributions of behavioral genetics research: quantifying genetic, shared environmental and nonshared environmental influences. In: Vasey MW, Dadds MR (eds) The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 45–59
7.
go back to reference Rapee RM (1997) Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression. Clin Psychol Rev 17:47–67 PubMedCrossRef Rapee RM (1997) Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression. Clin Psychol Rev 17:47–67 PubMedCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Wood JJ, McLeod BD, Sigman M, Hwang WC, Chu BC (2003) Parenting and childhood anxiety: theory, empirical findings, and future directions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44:134–151 PubMedCrossRef Wood JJ, McLeod BD, Sigman M, Hwang WC, Chu BC (2003) Parenting and childhood anxiety: theory, empirical findings, and future directions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44:134–151 PubMedCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Woodruff-Borden J, Morrow C, Bourland S, Cambron S (2002) The behavior of anxious parents: examining mechanisms of transmission of anxiety from parent to child. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 31:364–374 PubMedCrossRef Woodruff-Borden J, Morrow C, Bourland S, Cambron S (2002) The behavior of anxious parents: examining mechanisms of transmission of anxiety from parent to child. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 31:364–374 PubMedCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Negreiros J, Miller LD (2014) The role of parenting in childhood anxiety: etiological factors and treatment implications. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 21:3–17 CrossRef Negreiros J, Miller LD (2014) The role of parenting in childhood anxiety: etiological factors and treatment implications. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 21:3–17 CrossRef
11.
go back to reference Cicchetti D, Ackerman BP, Izard CE (1995) Emotions and emotion regulation in developmental psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 7:1–10 CrossRef Cicchetti D, Ackerman BP, Izard CE (1995) Emotions and emotion regulation in developmental psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 7:1–10 CrossRef
12.
go back to reference Suveg C, Southam-Gerow MA, Goodman KL, Kendall PC (2007) The role of emotion theory and research in child therapy development. Clin Psychol (New York) 14:358–371 Suveg C, Southam-Gerow MA, Goodman KL, Kendall PC (2007) The role of emotion theory and research in child therapy development. Clin Psychol (New York) 14:358–371
13.
go back to reference Vasey MW, Dadds MR (2001) An introduction to the developmental psychopathology of anxiety disorders. In: Vasey MW, Dadds MR (eds) The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 3–26 Vasey MW, Dadds MR (2001) An introduction to the developmental psychopathology of anxiety disorders. In: Vasey MW, Dadds MR (eds) The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 3–26
14.
go back to reference Southam-Gerow MA, Kendall PC (2002) Emotion regulation and understanding: implications for child psychopathology and therapy. Clin Psychol Rev 22:189–222 PubMedCrossRef Southam-Gerow MA, Kendall PC (2002) Emotion regulation and understanding: implications for child psychopathology and therapy. Clin Psychol Rev 22:189–222 PubMedCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Suveg C, Morelen D, Brewer GA, Thomassin K (2010) The emotion dysregulation model of anxiety: a preliminary path analytic examination. J Anxiety Disord 24:924–930 PubMedCrossRef Suveg C, Morelen D, Brewer GA, Thomassin K (2010) The emotion dysregulation model of anxiety: a preliminary path analytic examination. J Anxiety Disord 24:924–930 PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Shaffer A, Suveg C, Thomassin K, Bradbury LL (2012) Emotion socialization in the context of family risks: links to child emotion regulation. J Child Fam Stud 21:917–924 CrossRef Shaffer A, Suveg C, Thomassin K, Bradbury LL (2012) Emotion socialization in the context of family risks: links to child emotion regulation. J Child Fam Stud 21:917–924 CrossRef
17.
go back to reference Southam-Gerow MA, Kendall PC (2000) A preliminary study of the emotion understanding of youths referred for treatment of anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Psychol 29:319–327 PubMedCrossRef Southam-Gerow MA, Kendall PC (2000) A preliminary study of the emotion understanding of youths referred for treatment of anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Psychol 29:319–327 PubMedCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Suveg C, Zeman J (2004) Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 33:750–759 PubMedCrossRef Suveg C, Zeman J (2004) Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 33:750–759 PubMedCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Suveg C, Zeman J, Flannery-Schroeder E, Cassano M (2005) Emotion socialization in families of children with an anxiety disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 33:145–155 PubMedCrossRef Suveg C, Zeman J, Flannery-Schroeder E, Cassano M (2005) Emotion socialization in families of children with an anxiety disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 33:145–155 PubMedCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Suveg C, Sood E, Barmish A, Tiwari S, Hudson JL, Kendall PC (2008) ‘I’d rather not talk about it’: emotion parenting in families of children with an anxiety disorder. J Fam Psychol 22:875–884 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Suveg C, Sood E, Barmish A, Tiwari S, Hudson JL, Kendall PC (2008) ‘I’d rather not talk about it’: emotion parenting in families of children with an anxiety disorder. J Fam Psychol 22:875–884 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
22.
go back to reference Hastings PD, Miller JG (2014) Autonomic regulation, polyvagal theory, and children’s prosocial development. In: Padilla-Walker LM, Carlo G (eds) Prosocial development: a multidimensional approach. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 112–127 CrossRef Hastings PD, Miller JG (2014) Autonomic regulation, polyvagal theory, and children’s prosocial development. In: Padilla-Walker LM, Carlo G (eds) Prosocial development: a multidimensional approach. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 112–127 CrossRef
23.
go back to reference Hastings PD, Nuselovici JN, Utendale WT, Coutya J, McShane KE, Sullivan C (2008) Applying the polyvagal theory to children’s emotion regulation: social context, socialization, and adjustment. Biol Psychol 79:299–306 PubMedCrossRef Hastings PD, Nuselovici JN, Utendale WT, Coutya J, McShane KE, Sullivan C (2008) Applying the polyvagal theory to children’s emotion regulation: social context, socialization, and adjustment. Biol Psychol 79:299–306 PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Schmitz J, Tuschen-Caffier B, Wilhelm FH, Blechert J (2013) Taking a closer look: autonomic dysregulation in socially anxious children. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 22:631–640 PubMedCrossRef Schmitz J, Tuschen-Caffier B, Wilhelm FH, Blechert J (2013) Taking a closer look: autonomic dysregulation in socially anxious children. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 22:631–640 PubMedCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Rogeness GA, Cepeda C, Macedo CA, Fischer C (1990) Differences in heart rate and blood pressure in children with conduct disorder, major depression, and separation anxiety. Psychiatry Res 33:199–206 PubMedCrossRef Rogeness GA, Cepeda C, Macedo CA, Fischer C (1990) Differences in heart rate and blood pressure in children with conduct disorder, major depression, and separation anxiety. Psychiatry Res 33:199–206 PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference van Lang NDJ, Tulen JHM, Kallen VL, Rosbergen B, Dieleman G, Ferdinand RF (2007) Autonomic reactivity in clinically referred children attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus anxiety disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16:71–78 PubMedCrossRef van Lang NDJ, Tulen JHM, Kallen VL, Rosbergen B, Dieleman G, Ferdinand RF (2007) Autonomic reactivity in clinically referred children attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus anxiety disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16:71–78 PubMedCrossRef
28.
go back to reference Beauchaine TP (2001) Vagal tone, development, and gray’s motivational theory: toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 13:183–214 PubMedCrossRef Beauchaine TP (2001) Vagal tone, development, and gray’s motivational theory: toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 13:183–214 PubMedCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Calkins SD, Dedmon SE (2000) Physiological and behavioral regulation in two-year-old children with aggressive/destructive behavior problems. J Abnorm Child Psychol 28:103–118 PubMedCrossRef Calkins SD, Dedmon SE (2000) Physiological and behavioral regulation in two-year-old children with aggressive/destructive behavior problems. J Abnorm Child Psychol 28:103–118 PubMedCrossRef
30.
31.
go back to reference Calkins SD, Hill A (2007) Caregiver influences on emerging emotion regulation. In: Gross JJ (ed) Handbook of emotion regulation. Guilford Press, New York, pp 229–248 Calkins SD, Hill A (2007) Caregiver influences on emerging emotion regulation. In: Gross JJ (ed) Handbook of emotion regulation. Guilford Press, New York, pp 229–248
32.
go back to reference Calkins SD, Graziano P, Berdan L, Keane S, Degnan K (2008) Predicting cardiac vagal regulation in early childhood from maternal-child relationship quality during toddlerhood. Dev Psychobiol 50:751–776 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Calkins SD, Graziano P, Berdan L, Keane S, Degnan K (2008) Predicting cardiac vagal regulation in early childhood from maternal-child relationship quality during toddlerhood. Dev Psychobiol 50:751–776 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
33.
go back to reference Perry NB, Calkins SD, Nelson JA, Leerkes EM, Marcovitch S (2012) Mothers’ responses to children’s negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression. Dev Psychobiol 54:503–513 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Perry NB, Calkins SD, Nelson JA, Leerkes EM, Marcovitch S (2012) Mothers’ responses to children’s negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression. Dev Psychobiol 54:503–513 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
34.
go back to reference Calkins SD (1994) Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. Monogr Soc Res Chi Dev 59:53–72 CrossRef Calkins SD (1994) Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. Monogr Soc Res Chi Dev 59:53–72 CrossRef
35.
go back to reference Crockenberg S, Leerkes E (2004) Infant and maternal behaviors regulate infant reactivity to novelty at 6 months. Dev Psychol 40:1123–1132 PubMedCrossRef Crockenberg S, Leerkes E (2004) Infant and maternal behaviors regulate infant reactivity to novelty at 6 months. Dev Psychol 40:1123–1132 PubMedCrossRef
36.
go back to reference Crockenberg S, Leerkes E (2006) Infant and maternal behavior moderate reactivity to novelty to predict anxious behavior at 25 years. Dev Psychopathol 18:17–34 PubMedCrossRef Crockenberg S, Leerkes E (2006) Infant and maternal behavior moderate reactivity to novelty to predict anxious behavior at 25 years. Dev Psychopathol 18:17–34 PubMedCrossRef
37.
go back to reference Calkins SD, Keane SP (2004) Cardiac vagal regulation across preschool: stability, continuity, and relations to adjustment. Dev Psychobiol 45:101–112 PubMedCrossRef Calkins SD, Keane SP (2004) Cardiac vagal regulation across preschool: stability, continuity, and relations to adjustment. Dev Psychobiol 45:101–112 PubMedCrossRef
38.
go back to reference Gunnar MR (2006) Social regulation of stress in early child development. In: McCartney K, Phillips D (eds) Blackwell handbook of early childhood development. Blackwell, Malden, pp 106–125 CrossRef Gunnar MR (2006) Social regulation of stress in early child development. In: McCartney K, Phillips D (eds) Blackwell handbook of early childhood development. Blackwell, Malden, pp 106–125 CrossRef
39.
go back to reference Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L (2000) Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child neuropsychology. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, pp 235–238 Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L (2000) Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child neuropsychology. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, pp 235–238
40.
go back to reference Fabes RA, Eisenberg N, Bernzweig J (1990) Parental coping with children’s negative emotions: relations with children’s emotional and social responding. Arizona State University [Available from the authors] Fabes RA, Eisenberg N, Bernzweig J (1990) Parental coping with children’s negative emotions: relations with children’s emotional and social responding. Arizona State University [Available from the authors]
41.
go back to reference Linehan MM, Paul E, Egan KJ (1983) The Parent Affect Test: development, validity, and reliability. J Clin Child Psychol 12:161–166 Linehan MM, Paul E, Egan KJ (1983) The Parent Affect Test: development, validity, and reliability. J Clin Child Psychol 12:161–166
42.
go back to reference Greenberger E (1988) New measures for research on work, parenting, and the socialization of children. University of California, Irvine Greenberger E (1988) New measures for research on work, parenting, and the socialization of children. University of California, Irvine
43.
go back to reference Davis MH (1983) Measuring individual differences in empathy: evidence for a multidimensional approach. J Pers Soc Psychol 44:113–126 CrossRef Davis MH (1983) Measuring individual differences in empathy: evidence for a multidimensional approach. J Pers Soc Psychol 44:113–126 CrossRef
44.
go back to reference DeBoard-Lucas RL, Fosco GM, Raynor SR, Grych JH (2010) Interparental conflict in context: exploring relations between parenting processes and children’s conflict appraisals. J Child Adolesc Psychol 39:163–175 CrossRef DeBoard-Lucas RL, Fosco GM, Raynor SR, Grych JH (2010) Interparental conflict in context: exploring relations between parenting processes and children’s conflict appraisals. J Child Adolesc Psychol 39:163–175 CrossRef
45.
go back to reference Nelson JA, O’Brien M, Blankson AN, Calkins SD, Keane SP (2009) Family stress and parental responses to children’s negative emotions: tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. J Fam Psychol 23:671–679 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Nelson JA, O’Brien M, Blankson AN, Calkins SD, Keane SP (2009) Family stress and parental responses to children’s negative emotions: tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. J Fam Psychol 23:671–679 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
46.
go back to reference Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Cully M, Brent D, McKenzie S (1995) Screen for child anxiety related disorders. Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Cully M, Brent D, McKenzie S (1995) Screen for child anxiety related disorders. Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh
47.
go back to reference Birmaher B, Brent D, Chiappetta L, Bridge J, Monga S, Baugher M (1999) Psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety-related emotional disorders (SCARED): a replication study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1230–1236 PubMedCrossRef Birmaher B, Brent D, Chiappetta L, Bridge J, Monga S, Baugher M (1999) Psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety-related emotional disorders (SCARED): a replication study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1230–1236 PubMedCrossRef
48.
go back to reference Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Brent D, Cully M (1997) The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545–553 PubMedCrossRef Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Brent D, Cully M (1997) The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545–553 PubMedCrossRef
49.
go back to reference Muris P, Merckelbach H, van Brakel A, Mayer B, van Dongen L (1998) The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): relationship with anxiety and depression in normal children. Pers Individ Dif 24:451–456 CrossRef Muris P, Merckelbach H, van Brakel A, Mayer B, van Dongen L (1998) The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): relationship with anxiety and depression in normal children. Pers Individ Dif 24:451–456 CrossRef
50.
go back to reference Muris P, Merckelbach H, Mayer B, van Brakel A, Thissen S, Moulaert V, Gadet B (1998) The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED) and traditional childhood anxiety measures. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 29:327–339 PubMedCrossRef Muris P, Merckelbach H, Mayer B, van Brakel A, Thissen S, Moulaert V, Gadet B (1998) The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED) and traditional childhood anxiety measures. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 29:327–339 PubMedCrossRef
51.
go back to reference Calkins SD (1997) Cardiac vagal tone indices of temperamental reactivity and behavioral regulation in young children. Dev Psychobiol 31:125–135 PubMedCrossRef Calkins SD (1997) Cardiac vagal tone indices of temperamental reactivity and behavioral regulation in young children. Dev Psychobiol 31:125–135 PubMedCrossRef
52.
go back to reference Baron RM, Kenny DA (1986) The moderator– mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173–1182 PubMedCrossRef Baron RM, Kenny DA (1986) The moderator– mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173–1182 PubMedCrossRef
54.
go back to reference Hayes AF (2013) Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. The Guilford Press, New York Hayes AF (2013) Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. The Guilford Press, New York
55.
go back to reference Casey RJ (1996) Emotional competence in children with externalizing and internalizing disorders. In: Lewis M, Sullivan MW (eds) Emotional development in atypical children. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale Casey RJ (1996) Emotional competence in children with externalizing and internalizing disorders. In: Lewis M, Sullivan MW (eds) Emotional development in atypical children. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale
56.
go back to reference Cunningham JN, Kliewer W, Garner PW (2009) Emotion socialization, child emotion understanding and regulation, and adjustment in urban African American families: differential associations across child gender. Dev Psychopathol 21:261–283 PubMedCrossRef Cunningham JN, Kliewer W, Garner PW (2009) Emotion socialization, child emotion understanding and regulation, and adjustment in urban African American families: differential associations across child gender. Dev Psychopathol 21:261–283 PubMedCrossRef
57.
go back to reference Porges SW, Campbell BA, Hayne H, Richardson R (1992) Autonomic regulation and attention. Attention and information processing in infants and adults: perspectives from human and anmial research. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, pp 201–223 Porges SW, Campbell BA, Hayne H, Richardson R (1992) Autonomic regulation and attention. Attention and information processing in infants and adults: perspectives from human and anmial research. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, pp 201–223
58.
go back to reference Parent C, Zhang TY, Caldji C, Bagot R, Champagne FA, Pruessner J, Meaney MJ (2005) Maternal care and individual differences in defensive responses. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 14:229–233 CrossRef Parent C, Zhang TY, Caldji C, Bagot R, Champagne FA, Pruessner J, Meaney MJ (2005) Maternal care and individual differences in defensive responses. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 14:229–233 CrossRef
59.
go back to reference Cassano M, Perry-Parrish C, Zeman J (2007) Influence of gender on parental socialization of children’s sadness regulation. Soc Dev 16:210–231 CrossRef Cassano M, Perry-Parrish C, Zeman J (2007) Influence of gender on parental socialization of children’s sadness regulation. Soc Dev 16:210–231 CrossRef
60.
go back to reference Shipman KL, Zeman JL, Stegall S (2001) Regulating emotionally expressive behavior: implications of goals and social partner from middle childhood to adolescence. Child Study 31:249–268 Shipman KL, Zeman JL, Stegall S (2001) Regulating emotionally expressive behavior: implications of goals and social partner from middle childhood to adolescence. Child Study 31:249–268
61.
go back to reference Saarni C (1999) The development of emotional competence. Guilford Press, New York Saarni C (1999) The development of emotional competence. Guilford Press, New York
62.
go back to reference Gottman JM, Katz LF, Hooven C (1997) Meta-emotion: how families communicate emotionally. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale Gottman JM, Katz LF, Hooven C (1997) Meta-emotion: how families communicate emotionally. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale
Metagegevens
Titel
Parent Emotion Socialization Practices and Child Self-regulation as Predictors of Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Cardiac Variability
Auteurs
Sarah R. Williams
Janet Woodruff-Borden
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Child Psychiatry & Human Development / Uitgave 4/2015
Print ISSN: 0009-398X
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3327
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0492-0