Skip to main content


Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

01-12-2018 | Review | Uitgave 1/2018 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2018

Paediatric flexible flat foot: how are we measuring it and are we getting it right? A systematic review

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2018
Helen A. Banwell, Maisie E. Paris, Shylie Mackintosh, Cylie M. Williams
Belangrijke opmerkingen

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13047-018-0264-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Flexible flat foot is a normal observation in typically developing children, however, some children with flat feet present with pain and impaired lower limb function. The challenge for health professionals is to identify when foot posture is outside of expected findings and may warrant intervention. Diagnoses of flexible flat foot is often based on radiographic or clinical measures, yet the validity and reliability of these measures for a paediatric population is not clearly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how paediatric foot posture is defined and measured within the literature, and if the psychometric properties of these measures support any given diagnoses.


Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane, AMED, SportDiscus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) were systematically searched in January 2017 for empirical studies where participants had diagnosed flexible flat foot and were aged 18 years or younger. Outcomes of interest were the foot posture measures and definitions used. Further articles were sought where cited in relation to the psychometric properties of the measures used.


Of the 1101 unique records identified by the searches, 27 studies met the inclusion criteria involving 20 foot posture measures and 40 definitions of paediatric flexible flat foot. A further 18 citations were sought in relation to the psychometric properties of these measures. Three measures were deemed valid and reliable, the FPI-6 > + 6 for children aged three to 15 years, a Staheli arch index of > 1.07 for children aged three to six and ≥ 1.28 for children six to nine, and a Chippaux-Smirak index of > 62.7% in three to seven year olds, > 59% in six to nine year olds and ≥ 40% for children aged nine to 16 years. No further measures were found to be valid for the paediatric population.


No universally accepted criteria for diagnosing paediatric flat foot was found within existing literature, and psychometric data for foot posture measures and definitions used was limited. The outcomes of this review indicate that the FPI – 6, Staheli arch index or Chippaux-Smirak index should be the preferred method of paediatric foot posture measurement in future research.

Onze productaanbevelingen

BSL Podotherapeut Totaal

Binnen de bundel kunt u gebruik maken van boeken, tijdschriften, e-learnings, web-tv's en uitlegvideo's. BSL Podotherapeut Totaal is overal toegankelijk; via uw PC, tablet of smartphone.

Extra materiaal
Additional file 1: Table A1. Reported validity data and population observed from included studies. Table A2. Reported validity data, population and protocol observed from cited studies. Table A3. Reported inter-rater reliability, population observed and QAREL score for included data. Table A4. Reported inter-rater reliability, population observed, protocol observed and QAREL score for cited data. Table A5. QAREL checklist outcomes for inter-rater reliability data of included and cited articles. (DOCX 35 kb)
Additional file 2: Table A4. Summary of foot posture tools. (DOCX 4276 kb)
Over dit artikel

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2018

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2018 Naar de uitgave